ALEXANDER III THE GREAT IN THE BIBLE
Before you read this humble article of mine please keep this in mind:
• I am not saying that the Biblical character known as David is a fictitious entity based on the historical figure of Alexander III. I am simply saying that king David is very similar to militaristic Alexander.
• I am not implying in any way that king David is the Nabuchadnezzar who destroyed Jerusalem & took the Israelites captive. I am simply saying that the scribes who wrote the sacred scriptures encrypted Alexander as Nabuchadnezzar.
• I am not saying that the Beit HaMikdash (the Temple of the Jews) never stood on Mount Moriah/Jerusalem. I am simply saying that there are some “gloomy issues” as far as the 1st Temple goes.
• I am not saying that the Bible is a book of fairy tales or a tool for mind control, I am simply saying that the Tanach (the Old Testament) is not a history book. The Bible is symbolically speaking “a computer program” that contains encoded truths.
• Remember that as far as chronology goes, the dates shown in this article are “approximate”. You must understand that some dates have been manipulated by politically correct archaeologists. For example, people say “B.C.” (before Christ) but so far no one has been able to match the Biblical Jesus to a “tangible” historical figure.
• Nizin Lopez is not an Arab, a Muslim, or a pro-Palestinian. Nizin Lopez is a Westener, 100% Western. Nizin Lopez is ultimately a “TRUTH SEEKER”.
Mr Nizin Lopez would like to dedicate this article to the Talmudic scholar Shmuel Gopin, Rabbi of Chabad Lubavitch of Midtown/Fla (USA).
Alexander III the great is and will always be the greatest conquistador of all time. He is more than just a man, he is an incarnated god. His epic and majestic tale echoes in eternity, he is immortal.
Could it be possible that the scribes who created the sacred scriptures encrypted Alexander in them? Could it be possible that the son of Phillip II is encoded in the very constitution of the West? If this is indeed the case, what exactly does that mean in practical terms? How would something like that affect us? These are all legitimate questions that demand legitimate answers.
If the Tanach (Torah, Neviim, Ketubim) is scrutinized, we will see that for example David is very similar to Alexander. Not only that, Nabuchadnezzar of Babylon also shares parallels with the Macedonian emperor. This is probably why the Orthodox Rabbis usually say that people should not see the Tanach as a history book (as I already stated). Believe it or not, chronology is not a very helpful tool when it comes to the phenomenon known as the Old Testament.
Either way, it is exciting to see the Tanach with the eyes of a mystical scientist who thirsts for Truth. Isn’t Truth what makes us free? Why then be afraid to smash the mirrors of dogma with the hammer of Truth? I wonder, what would Hitler have done if he would have understood that Caucasian Alexander is connected to the soul of Israel?
PART I: ALEXANDER AND THE BIBLICAL DAVID
Everyone has heard of a Biblical character named David. Where is the historical David? Where exactly is his resting place? Can we exhume his body for DNA testing? No one really has an answer for these questions.
(sculpture of king David by the Italian genius Michelangelo, early 1500’s)
David was born in Bethlehem/Judah, in modern Israel. He was a mighty man of valour, a shepherd, a musician, a politician,…he was David. His father was an “Ephratite”, meaning a distinguished man from Judah. Hi name was Jesse. As far as David’s mother goes, not much is known about her. The only thing we know is that the mother of David was probably not the mother of his brothers (he had seven brothers). Based on what the Bible says, his brothers always treated him like a second class.
(some believe that David had red hair like Alexander…mosaic from Pompeii. National Archaeological Museum, Naples/Italy)
Chapter 16 of the 1st book of Samuel implies that Jesse, meaning David’s father, did not seem to appreciate him very much. If we scrutinize the content found in I Samuel 16:11, we will see that David was treated as if he was a foreigner. His father and his brothers didn’t consider him worthy of seating at the family table (they always had him busy with the sheep).
David might remind us of a valiant man mentioned in the book of Judges: Jephthah the Gileadite. Like David, Jephthah was courageous and he was also abhorred by his brothers. Jephtah’s brothers disliked him and insulted him by telling him that he was the son of a harlot (they didn’t have the same mother).
If we analyze Alexander’s early life we will see that there are similarities between him and David. For example, Alexander’s progenitor was an “Ephratite”, a man of high status. His name was Phillip and he was the king of Macedonia (359-336 B.C.E.). He is known as Phillip II of Macedon, son of Amyntas III (393-369 B.C.E.). This was Alexander’s father (he was a king like Saul the Benjamite).
(Phillip II of Macedon)
Alexander’s mother was a Greek princess of Epirus. Her name was Olympias and it is said that she was Phillip’s 4th wife (Phillip married her in 357 B.C.E.).
(to the left: a medallion depicting Olympias, mother of Alexander [found in Aboukir/Egypt]. To the right: the beautiful Angelina Jolie as Olympias, from the 2004 film “Alexander” directed by Oliver Stone)
(Olympias belonged to the snake-handling cult of the Kaberoi gods of Samothrace. Here’s a Minoan goddess of Crete, her breasts are exposed and she is holding two snakes)
Alexander was born under the sign of cancer on July 20th 356 B.C.E., he was born in Pella/Macedonia (a native of Bottiaea).
(the sixteen pointed sunburst is the national emblem of Macedonia. It stands for sixteen ranks of long pikes wedged together in a close array, it means that Macedonia is a nation of warriors)
Since Alexander was the son of Phillip’s 4th wife it is only logical to think that Alexander had brothers. Polygamous Phillip married seven wives in total so Alexander had some competition (I Samuel 16:10 says that David had seven brothers).
(marble statue of Alexander. Acropolis museum, Athens)
In 337 B.C.E., when Alexander was nineteen years old, Phillip married his 7th wife. He married a noble Macedonian named Cleopatra (she was also known as Euridice) who happened to be the niece and ward of a noble Macedonian named Attalus. Olympias was not a pure blooded Macedonian, this was a threat to Alexander’s sucession to the throne.
Eventually all hell broke loose when Alexander got into an argument with Attalus and with his drunken father, this happened in public. Things got out of hand and Alexander and his mother had to go into a temporary exile. They went to Molossia (Olympias was the sister of Alexander of Molossia).
So, as we can see there are some similarities between the Biblical David and Alexander III. David was treated like a 2nd class by his father and by his brothers and Alexander also underwent a similar story. Wasn’t David destined to become king of both Judah and Israel? Wasn’t Alexander destined to become king of Macedonia and master of Asia? We cannot say that the tale of David is identical to the tale of Alexander but there are undeniable similarities. Here are the parallels:
• David’s father was a man of high social status: Alexander’s father was the king of Macedonia.
• Jesse had seven sons (besides David): Phillip II married seven wives.
• the sons of Jesse treated David like a 2nd class: Phillip’s marriage with Cleopatra reduced Alexander to a 2nd class status. Cleopatra was a pure-blooded Macedonian while Olympias was not.
• David resembles the Jephthah mentioned in the book of Judges. In the book of Judges Jephthah’s mother is called “a prostitute”, Olympias was a devotee of the very sexual god Dionysus, she was a snake handler.
Can anyone deny the similarities?
MURDEROUS SAUL AND PHILLIP
“Then Saul sought to pin David to the wall with the spear, but he slipped away from saul’s presence; and he drove the spear into the wall. So David fled and escaped that night.”
(I Samuel 19:10)
Those who are familiar with the Bible know that jealous Saul tried to kill David several times. He was scared of David, he feared being dethroned.
(glorious wreath of golden leaves)
What does this have to do with Alexander III of Macedon?
As I previously mentioned, in 337 B.C.E. Alexander got into a heavy argument with the noble Attalus and with his intoxicated father. Since Alexander defied them both in public Phillip got enraged. It is a known fact that Phillip plunged at Alexander with a sword but he fell over before he could reach him. Doesn’t this remind us of Saul throwing spears at David? Saul and Phillip, weren’t both of them kings?
The Biblical Saul was jealous of David because he (David) outdid him militarily. During his reign the people of Israel praised David’s victories over the Phillishtim more than they praised the victories of Saul (check I Samuel 18:7). Alexander ended up surpassing Phillip militarily. Phillip dreamed of conquering Persia but he died before that dream could materialize,…his son Alexander was the one chosen for that mission, Alexander not only conquered the arch enemies of Hellas, he became master of Asia.
(in Autumn 338 B.C.E. Phillip II defeated the Greek coalition led by Athens & Thebes at Chaeronea, it was an epic victory. The only problem was that the person who really won that battle was Alexander, not Phillip II. Therefore the Macedonian people regarded Phillip II as their general & Alexander as their king. Phillip resented that)
The end of king Saul was linked to a ruler of Amalek named Agag. YHVH had commanded Saul to exterminate Amalek, to erase them from beneath the heavens but, Saul disobeyed the command (check I Samuel 15:8-9). It was for this reason that the kingship of Saul was transferred to David.
What does this “AGAG” incident have to do with Phillip II of Macedon? Phillip met his end in July 336 B.C.E. in a theater of Ageae (Vergina). He was murdered in public during the wedding of his daughter Cleopatra (not to be confused with the niece of Attalus). Phiilip died at the age of forty six by the hand of one of his bodyguards: Pausanias. The name AGAG, doesn’t it sound like AGEAE?
Let us do the math:
• David outdid king Saul militarily: Alexander outdid Phillip II militarily.
• Saul threw spears at David trying to kill him: in 337 B.C.E. Phillip II tried to kill Alexander with a sword during a drunken party.
• Saul caused his own death by not killing Agag: Phillip died at Ageae in 336 B.C.E. (Ageae was the original capital of the Macedonian kingdom).
• Saul’s kingship was transferred to David: Phillip’s kingship was transferred to Alexander in 336 B.C.E.
(this golden box contains the cremated bones of Phillip II. Vergina, archaeological museum)
Can we say that Phillip II of Macedon is Saul BenKish? Answer: No. But, there are obvious parallels here.
MEROB-MICHAL AND PIXODARUS’ DAUGHTER
In 336 B.C.E. when Phillip was planning to invade Persia, Phillip attempted to make a strategic alliance with a potentate in Asia Minor: Halicarnassus (Bodrum/Turkey). The prince Halicarnassus at that time, Pixodarus, he offered his daughter in marriage to Phillip Arrhidaios (Alexander’s mentally retarded half brother).
(this marble lion use to stand on top of the roof of the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus. British museum of London)
It is said that Alexander suspected that his father was trying to make Phillip his heir. Alexander made a move, he offered himself to Pixodarus as a marriage partner for his daughter. Pixodarus felt pressured and walked out of the deal. When Phillip II heard of this he became enraged (Alexander did the whole thing behind his back). Phillip treated Alexander with suspicion from that day on.
This event might remind us of something that is talked about in chapter 18 of the 1st book of Samuel. After David killed Goliath “Sinuhe style”, Saul offered David his oldest daughter Merob. Somehow king Saul changed his mind and humiliated David:
“However, when it was time for Saul’s daughter Merob to be given to David, she was given in marriage to Adriel the Meholathite instead.”
(I Samuel 18:19)
Doesn’t this ring a bell when it comes to the Pixodarus’ incident? Is Merob not comparable to the daughter of the prince of Halicarnassus? Adriel, doesn’t he remind us of Phillip Arrhidaios? Didn’t saul humiliate David in the same way that Phillip II humiliated Alexander?
The Bible says that after the “Merob incident” Saul offered David his daughter Michal for one hundred Phillishti foreskins. David ended up marrying Michal but eventually Saul gave her to another man.
SAUL, DAVID, AND DIONYSUS
If we scrutinize the Bible we will see that sometimes Saul and David were involved in “strange practices” of pagan aroma, practices that might take us all the way back to the times of Dionysus.
(mosaic from Delos depicting the Greek god Dionysus. Dionysus was known to be “the eater of raw flesh who delights in the sword and bloodshed”)
The first book of Samuel depicts Saul as a demented Greek who was into some type of trance:
“And he also stripped off his clothes and prophesied before Samuel in like manner, and lay down naked all that day and all that night. Therefore they say, ‘Is Saul also among the prophets?’”
(I Samuel 19:24)
An Israelite of royal blood naked for many hours in front of Israelite men? Prophesizing? Doesn’t that ring a bell when it comes to the bizarre rituals of the Greeks who crossed all limits? The Saul mentioned in this passage, doesn’t he remind us of a drunken Phillip of Macedon going crazy in an orgy?
(here we have Olympias, Phillip, and young Alexander. Notice that Olympias seems to be in some type of “ecstatic trance”. Ivory from Vergina. Thessalonika museum/Greece)
Saul is not the only one in this situation,… David did some strange things too. The 2nd book of Samuel says or better said, “implies” that David danced naked before the ark of YHVH.
“Then David returned to bless his household. And Michal the daughter of Saul came out to meet David, and said, ‘how glorious was the king of Israel today, UNCOVERING HIMSELF today in the eyes of the maids of his servants, AS ONE OF THE BASE FELLOWS SHAMELESSLY UNCOVERS HIMSELF.”
(II Samuel 6:20)
Doesn’t this remind us of a drunken Alexander in going crazy in Carmania? Didn’t Alexander fornicate publicly in the name of Dionysus? Didn’t Alexander participate in insane orgies? Can anyone imagine an Orthodox Rabbi dancing naked in an altered state in front of the Western Wall?
(statue of Dionysus, from the east pediment of the Parthenon. British Museum, London)
ALEXANDER & HEPHAESTION
If we look in the Bible we will see that David had a very good relationship with a fellow named Jonathan, a Benjamite of royal blood (Saul’s son). They were very, very close friends. This “intimate” connection of theirs may in turn remind us of the great affection that Alexander felt for his comrade Hephaestion. Hephaestion Amyntoros was Alexander’s boyhood friend, pretty much a brother.
Here’s what the Bible says about David and Jonathan:
• “The soul of Jonathan was knit to the soul of David, Jonathan loved him as his own soul” (I Samuel 18:1).
• “Jonathan and David made a covenant because Jonathan loved him as his own soul” (I Samuel 18:3).
• “Jonathan delighted greatly in David” (I Samuel 19:1).
• “Jonathan gave David his own robe, his armor, his sword, his bow, and his belt” (I Samuel 18:4).
It is interesting to see that Jonathan went an extra mile by giving David “HIS OWN BELT”. In ancient Macedonia a male could only be considered a man, meaning an adult, if he had killed a wild boar or a lion (only the descendant of a king could hunt a lion).
(gladiators [bestiarii] fighting wild beasts. Terme museum, Rome/Italy)
A Macedonian that would kill a man in battle would obtain A SPECIAL BELT, a visual signal of valour and prestige. So yes, it is captivating to see that Jonathan gave David that kind of gift.
Based on what we see in the Bible, it looks like David and Jonathan were more than just friends, they apparently crossed “all boundaries”. It is a known fact that Alexander and Hephaestion were lovers.
Were David and Jonathan given into unnatural sexual practices? There must be a reason why king Saul said the following words to Jonathan:
“You son of a perverse, rebellious woman! Do I not know that you have chosen the son of Jesse TO YOUR OWN SHAME and TO THE SHAME OF YOUR MOTHER’S NAKEDNESS?”
(I Samuel 20:30)
Everything seems to indicate that David and Jonathan did indeed cross all the boundaries of sexuality. This is what author Michael Wood says about Alexander’s intimate relationship with Hephaestion:
“His closest relationship in the tight-knit circle of young companions was with hephaestion whom he might have known from childhood. Later stories portray Hephaestion as Alexander’s alter ego, sharer of his heroic dreams, ‘another Alexander who, pointedly, loved the king ‘for himself’. On a funerary monument created soon after the king’s death, the pair are portrayed almost like divine twins, smooth-faced androgynes in association with the goddess of fortune, Tyche.”
(In the footsteps of Alexander the great, by Michael Wood. University of California Press. Berkerley Los Angeles. Pg 28)
The Biblical characters known as David and Jonathan certainly resemble Alexander and Hephaestion, no question about it. In fact, the 1st book of Maccabees speaks of a Seulecid king named “ALEXANDER” who had great affection for a Jew named “JONATHAN” (Jonathan-Apphus, brother of Judas Maccabeus). It almost sounds as if the scribe who wrote the 1st book of Maccabees had David and Jonathan in mind. This is the message that the son of Antiochus IV Epiphanes sent to Jonathan:
“King Alexander send sends greetings to his brother Jonathan. We have heard of you, that you are a mighty warrior and worthy to be our friend. We have therefore appointed you today to be high priest of your nation; you are to be called the kings friend, and you are to look after our interests and preserve amity with us.”
He also sent him A PURPLE ROBE and A CROWN OF GOLD.
(I Maccabees 10:18-20)
Isn’t this the story of David and Jonathan all over again?
(Hephaestion died in Ecbatana/Media, in the autumn of 324 B.C.E. Here we have a sculpture of Hephaestion, Prado/Spain)
DAVID & ALEXANDER’S TROY
I Samuel 27:7 states that David resided with Achish, king of Gath for one year and some months. David served the Phillishti king even though they were adversaries of Judah & Israel. Some scholars believe that Achish, the son of Maoch, is really “ANCHISES”, king of Troy and father of “AENEAS”, the progenitor of the Roman peoples.
(map of Troy, in modern Turkey)
(scene of the 2004 fim “Troy”, directed by Wolfgang Petersen)
What about Alexander and Hephaestion? Weren’t they admirers of Troy? Didn’t Alexander see himself as a Macedonian Achilles? Didn’t Hephaestion see himself as a Patroclus? It is said that in 334 B.C.E. both Alexander and Hephaestion placed a commemorative wreath in the tomb of Achilles (a conical tumulus at Besika Bay/Turkey). Some sources say that when they got there they stripped naked, cut off locks of hair, and ran around the sacred tomb.
It is said that when Alexander was about to die, he spoke about building a magnificent temple to Athena at Illium Nova (New Troy). Alexander had honored the warrior goddess in Troy.
(the warrior-goddess “ATHENA”. From the West pediment of the ‘Temple of Aphaia’ on Aegina. Pariah marble, Munich)
Either way, it is interesting to see that David had some type of connection with the “Illium” venerated by Alexander.
(archaic scene of the famous Trojan horse, from the neck of a big pot from Mikonos, c. 675 B.C. made approximately 50 years after the lifetime of Homer)
THE KOHANIM OF NOB AND THE PRIESTS OF DIDYMA
The Bible speaks about how the men of Saul committed an injustice against a priestly people that protected David at some point. These were the Gibeonites who descended from the Amorite. Saul commanded his men to exterminate Ahimelech the priest and the house of Nob:
“And the king said to Doeg, ‘you turn and kill the priests!’ So Doeg the Edomite turned and struck the priests, and killed on that day eighty five men who wore a linen ephod…also Nob, the city of the priests, he struck with the edge of the sword, both men and women, children and nursing infants, oxen and donkey and sheep-with the edge of the sword.”
(I Samuel 22:18-19)
What does this have to do with Alexander? Apparently nothing. When Alexander headed to the east in order to become “king of kings”, he visited the oracle of Apollo at Didyma. This took place in the autumn of 334 B.C.E., the temple of Apollo was located by Miletus/Turkey.
(map of Didyma, Turkey)
(Apollo, Parian marble, Olympia. From the West pediment of the temple of Zeus at Olympia)
In 494 when the Ionians revolted against the Persians, the temple of Didyma was desecrated and the statue of Apollo was carried off to Susa/Persia. It’s priestly clan at that time, the Branchidae, collaborated with the Persians and were resettled in Asia:
“That is just what happened now to the Mylesians, when the majority of their men were killed by the long-haired Persians and their women and children became their captive slaves. And at the sanctuary of Didyma, both the temple and the oracle were plundered and set on fire. I have often mentioned the wealth of this sanctuary elsewhere in my history. The Mylesians who had been captured alive were taken to Susa. King Darius inflicted no further harm on them, but settled them on the sea called the Erythraean in the city of Ampe past which the Tigris river flows and empties into the sea.”
(Herodotus, the Histories. Book 6.19-3 to Book 6.20)
(snake-tripod dedicated to Apollo at Delphi)
Basically, the guardians of Apollo betrayed their priesthood in order to preserve their lives (at least according to the opinion of some). When Alexander reached Bactria he accidentally ran into the descendants of the priestly Branchidae. He found those Ionians who were descended from the priests of the temple of Apollo at Didyma. He ran into them at Dilbergin Tepe, on the road from Balkh to the Oxus at Kilif.
In 334 B.C.E. the oracle of Didyma had been favorable to Alexander, it foretold that he would conquer Asia and that Darius would be defeated. Since this oracle had given him a good omen, Alexander felt that he had to punish the descendants of the traitors in gratitude to Apollo. He felt that by killing those Ionians in Bactria he would avenge the sacrilege against the sanctuary of Apollo (even though technically they were faultless). He butchered them all.
(Apollo, the cruel god. The Phrygians say that Apollo flayed Marsyas the musician and hanged his skin at Kelainai [Turkey]. Engraving by Melchior Meier)
Doesn’t this morbid tale remind us of the genocide committed by Saul against the priestly Gibeonites? The stories are certainly similar.
URIAH THE HITTITE AND PARMENIO
The 2nd book of Samuel mentions an honorable and valiant man that could remind us of the noble Parmenion who served Alexander whole-heartedly, his name was Uriah. Uriah the Hittite was, like Parmenio, an army affiliated man. Uriah was married to an attractive woman named Bath Sheba. David lusted after her. This is the command David gave to his servant Joab:
“Set Uriah in the forefront of the hottest battle, and retreat from him, that he might be struck down and die.”
(II Samuel 11:15)
The Biblical David wanted to rid himself of Uriah and Alexander wanted to eliminate Parmenio. It was not easy for the Macedonian king to dispose of his deputy without proper cause, Parmenio had been Phillip’s premier general and he was very popular with Alexander’s men. From a military perspective Parmenion was a valuable asset but he was an obstacle to Alexander’s autocracy, Alexander needed to get rid of him somehow.
In 330 B.C.E. the eldest son of Parmenio, a commander in chief named Philotas, plotted against Alexander. A certain Macedonian named Dimnus had organized the conspiracy, since Philotas knew about it and failed to report it, he was tried and executed. This gave Alexander the green light as far as Parmenio went. In 330 B.C.E. Parmenio was judicially murdered in Ecbatana/Media (he was stabbed to death).
So, the Biblical David disposed of Uriah for the sake of Bathsheba and Alexander eliminated Parmenio in the holy name of politics. Can we say that Uriah is Parmenio? No. But, the story of Uriah rings a bell when it comes to Alexander’s deputy.
CLEITUS AND ABISHAI
The second book of Samuel speaks a warrior named Abishai who saved David’s life. He killed a giant man who was about to obliterate David from the face of the earth:
“Then Ishbi-Benob, who was one of the sons of the giant, the weight of whose bronze spear was 300 shekels, who was bearing a new sword, thought he could kill David. But Abishai the son of Zeruiah came to his aid, and struck the Phillishtine and killed him. Then the men of David swore to him, saying, ‘you shall go out no more with us to battle, lest you quench the lamp of Israel’”.
(II Samuel 21:16-17)
Incredibly enough, this Biblical tale finds in echo in one of Alexander’s adventures. A brave man known as “Cleitus the black” saved Alexander’s life in 334 B.C.E. at the battle of Granicus (in modern Turkey). Cleitus saved Alexander in the same way that Abishai saved David. Plutarch speaks about how a Persian giant tried to kill Alexander:
“Then the Persian commanders Rhoesaces and Spithridates came against him in unison. Alexander side stepped Spithridates and struck Rhoesaces, who was wearing a breastplate, with his spear. But when his spear shattered, he resorted to his sword. While the two were engaged in hand-to-hand combat, Spithridates halted his horse beside them and raisning himself up sharply in his saddle struck Alexander a blow with his barbarian battle-axe. The crest of Alexander’s helmet was broken off, along with one of its plumes. The helmet itself only just withstood the blow, which actually grazed the top of the king’s hair. Spithridates then raised the axe and was about to deliver a second blow when Cleitus the black intervened and ran him through with his spear.”
(Plutarch, 46-120 C.E.)
This Persian Spithridates,…doesn’t he remind us of the Ishbi-Benob who tried to kill David?
Cleitus the black was a leading Macedonian noble, the brother of Alexander’s wet nurse. Destiny certainly flapped it’s sad wings the day Alexander killed Cleitus in an heated argument…(Cleitus claimed that Alexander owed his success to his father). Alexander killed the man who saved his very life!
(the Macedonian noble Cleitus the black: murdered by his beloved king Alexander)
(some scholars believe this is the armor of Phillip II, it was found in the famous tomb of Vergina. Cleitus was right: Alexander was a great warrior but he had inherited a magnificent army from Phillip II)
(Cleitus the black, son of Dropides, died in 328 B.C.E. in Samarqand/Uzbekistan)
So, can we see that the Biblical character known as Abishai is Cleitus? No. But, the event mentioned in chapter 21 of the 2nd book of Samuel surely remind us of Cleitus.
ARCHITE AND ARSITES
There is more as far as the battle of Granicus goes. Chapter 17 of the 2nd book of Samuel mentions an adviser of Absalom (Absalom was David’s son) named “Hushai the Archite.” This Hushai told Absalom to gather all Israel against David (Absalom had betrayed his father). The 2nd book of Samuel speaks of a great army that was greatly hostile to David; this menacing horde is descibed as “a great multitude”, numerous “like the sand of the sea” (check II Samuel 17:11).
The troops of Absalom might remind us of the great army of Darius III. The leader of the Persian army at the battle of Granicus was a Persian noble named “Arsites”, he was the satrap of Darius in the Hellespontine (in Phrygia). Doesn’t the named ARSITES resemble the name ARCHITE? Darius’ troops at the Hellespontine, weren’t they a great multitude? Weren’t they numerous like the sand of the sea?
The Bible says that Absalom was defeated, just like the historical Arsites in charge of Darius’ army. Arsites had no choice but to flee to greater Phrygia, he committed suicide.
Chapter 17 of the 2nd book of Samuel speaks of a folk that could be the camouflaged version of Arsites: Achitophel. This Achitophel also took his life sometime after the defeat of Absalom (he was an adviser to Absalom like Archite). So no, the Biblical Achitophel is not the Archite that resembles Arsites but,…could it be possible that the scribe who wrote the 2nd book of Samuel encrypted Arsites both as “ARCHITE” and as “ACHITOPHEL”? Could it be possible that the historical Arsites was encoded like a two faced Janus?
So, the Abishai who saved David from the giant resembles the Cleitus who delivered Alexander at the battle of Granicus. And, Archite-Achitophel remind us of the Arsites who led Darius’ troops at Granicus. These are unusual coincidences!
“Now Abishai the brother of Joab, the son of Zeruiah, was chief of another three. He lifted his spear against three hundred men, and won a name among these three.”
(II Samuel 23:18)
Here we see that the hero Abishai prevailed over three hundred men and won a name for himself. Did he really kill three hundred men? This is an allegory to the giant Ishbi Benob mentioned in II Samuel 2:16. Ishbi Benob had a sear that weighted 300 shekels, since Abishai finished him, he is said to have killed 300 men. Why is it that the 2nd book of Samuel is using the number 300? What does this really represent?
When Alexander triumphed at Granicus he sent back to Greece 300 barbarian suits of armor for dedication to Athena at Athens. He sent his fellow Greeks the following message:
“Alexander son of Phillip and the Greeks except the Spartans dedicate these spoils taken from the Persians who dwell in Asia.”
Could it be possible that there is a correlation between the 300 suits of armor dedicated in Greece and the 300 men killed by Abishai? Judges 7:7 says that the Israelite named Gideon defeated Zeba and Zalmuna with 300 men (300 Spartan lions sacrificed their lives in Thermopylae fighting the Persians to the death). So, is there a correlation?
(a scene of the 2006 film 300 directed by Zack Snyder)
Let us not forget that the fortress of Oxyartes in Bactria was taken thanks to 300 valiant champions of the Macedonian army (327 B.C.E.).
DAVID AND THE LAND OF HIRAM
In the year 332 B.C.E. Alexander conquered Phoenicia, he blasted the fortified offshore island of “New Tyre”. It was not an easy task, the assault lasted seven consecutive months; seven months of excruciating effort. The population was sold into slavery. He punished the Tyrians by crucifying 2000 of them by the Phoenician shores.
(Alexander at the battle of Granicus. Alexander sarcophagus of Sidon, Istanbul/Turkey)
What does this have to do with the Biblical David? The 2nd book of Samuel mentions two captains of Saul who were mutilated and hanged until night time:
“So David commanded his young men, and they executed them, cut off their hands and feet, and hanged them BY THE POOL in Hebron.”
(II Samuel 4:12)
This passage implies that the two Benjamites who served Saul were hanged on some type of wooden structure; this is something that rings a bell when it comes to “crucifixion” (crosses are made out of wood). Then he hanged them “by a pool”, meaning BY WATER. By shores? This passage of the 2nd book of Samuel, doesn’t it remind us of the 2000 Tyrians that Alexander crucified by the shores of Phoenicia?
(what a grotesque sight it must have been to behold 2000 crucified and bleeding to death! Let us not forget that most of those Tyrians must have been wounded at that time, some “severely wounded”. Scene from the Spartacus TV series of Steven S. DeKnight)
The vandals punished by David were Israelites, not Tyrians. Yet, it is interesting to see that right after chapter 4 of the 2nd book of Samuel (the crucifixion by the pool is mentioned in II Samuel 4:12) the Tyrian king Hiram is mentioned all of the sudden (II Samuel 5:11). Isn’t this sort of a weird synchronicity? As if this is not enough, chapter 21 of the 2nd book of Samuel says that David hanged “SEVEN” Benjamites so that there would be rain in Israel. Didn’t Alexander blast the Tyrians for “SEVEN” consecutive months? Let us attempt to decode this:
• Alexander crucifies 2000 Tyrians by the shores of Phoenicia = David hangs two folks on trees by a pool.
• Alexander assaulted the offshore fortified island of Tyre for SEVEN months = David hanged SEVEN folks from the house of Saul in order to lift a curse from Israel.
• II Samuel 21:10 says that after the seven Benjamites were sacrificed there was “RAIN”. Rain = water, the pool of Hebron,…the shores of Phoenicia.
Are these all coincidences?
ARAUNAH THE JEBUSITE AND FORTIFIED TYRE
“I am a God, I sit in the seat of gods, in the midst of the seas.”
(aerial view of Tyre)
The Bible speaks of a fellow named Araunah the Jebusite who interacted with David at some point (the Jebusite lived in Jerusalem). David supposedly purchased land from him in order to offer elevation offerings to YHVH. The “business-oriented dialogue” that David had with Araunah might remind us of Tyre. When Alexander reached the shores of Tyre he tried to take the city not by force but by using sagacity. He tried to cut “a deal” with the Tyrians:
“The Tyrians worshiped a god called Melkart, who was widely identified with Heracles. Alexander tried to disguise his strategic interest in the city by announcing that he wished to pay his respects to Melkart/Heracles in the god’s temple, and so honor the Tyrians and his own ancestor. The Tyrians were not fooled, and refused his request, believing themselves safe behind their impregnable walls.”
(Alexander’s tomb [the two thousand year obsession to find the lost conqueror], Nicholas J. Saunders. Basic Books. Pg 12)
(here we see the god Melqart riding a lion. Stele of Amrit, 550 B.C.)
The Jebusite of Jerusalem lived behind fortified walls like the Tyrians. In fact, Chapter 5 of the 2nd book of Samuel says that they did not allow David to enter their city. They even had the nerve to defy him! As we already know, “New Tyre” was surrounded by water and the city of the Jebusite was apparently surrounded by water as well. In II Samuel 5:8 David said the following to his men:
“All who wish to strike the Jebusite must do so THROUGH THE WATER SHAFT.”
In order to access the offshore island of Tyre Alexander had to build two moles. II Samuel 5:9 says something that rings a bell when it comes to Alexander’s strategy, it says that David built up the area “FROM MILLO TO THE PALACE”. This certainly reminds us of the mole used by Alexander.
As if this is not enough, II Samuel 5:11 mentions Hiram of Tyre. In other words, right after speaking about the strategy used by David to conquer the Jebusite (code for the Tyrians?) the name of Hiram (king of Tyre) emerges by magic. Samuel 5:11 says that Hiram assisted David with cedar wood, carpenters, and masons.
(bronze sculpture of Apollo. It is said that Alexander found a colossal statue of Apollo in Tyre, the Tyrians feared that Apollo would desert to Alexander so they chained the statue. Apollo of Piombino, Paris)
Is Jebus-Zion a code for the Tyre blasted by Alexander? Let us not forget that Jeremiah 22:6 calls Judah “the head of Lebanon”.
(Phoenicians at sea, alabaster relief from the palace of Sargon II at Khorsabad. Neo-Assyrian, Louvre/Paris)
DAVID AND ZUL QARNAEIN
II Samuel 12:30 says that after David besieged Ammon (modern day Jordan) he wore the crown of Milcom, god of the Ammonites. This crown weighted a talent of gold plus it contained precious stones. How is it possible that a monotheist of YHVH would wear the crown of Ammon? Didn’t the Israelites consider the god of Ammon an abomination? We may find some answers in the exotic tale of Alexander…
Sometime in 331 B.C.E. after blasting Tyre and Gaza, Alexander went to Libya in order to consult the oracle of Ammon. This was indeed an ancient oracle, it had been around since the times of Croesus, son of Alyattes, king of Lydia (a contemporary of Cyrus). Alexander saw Ammon as a Libyan/Egyptian version of the sky god Zeus. So, he put up with the harshness of the Libyan desert in order to reach the Siwah oasis where the Oracle was at.
(head of Zeus-Ammon, the Brooklyn museum, New York)
The effort paid off, he received a favorable omen (like in Dydima). When Alexander left the Lybian desert he was no longer Alexander, he was a god-king, the son of Ammon/Zeus. Therefore, he is depicted wearing the crown of Ammon, a crown decorated with the horns of a ram. This is why many refer to Alexander as “ZUL QARNAEIN”, meaning ‘the horned one’.
Doesn’t this remind us of David’s pagan crown? The crown that David wore on his head, wasn’t it the crown of the Ammonites?
(semi-divine Alexander wearing the horned crown of Ammon/Zeus)
There is more to the story. Chapter 16 of the 2nd book of Samuel mentions a character that was kind to David, his name was “ZIBA” (like Siwah, the name of the oasis visited by Alexander). The Bible says that Ziba gave David a wineskin for his men who were “FAINT IN THE WILDERNESS”. Doesn’t this remind us of a thirsty Alexander walking through the desert of Lybia? Strange indeed…!
The oracle visited by Alexander in 331 B.C.E. lay on the hill of Aghurmi in the center of the Siwah oasis. The oracle was inside a mud-brick fortress on a stone outcrop (Check II Samuel 12:31).
ZELEK AND SEULEKUS I NICATOR
Chapter 23 of the 2nd book of Samuel mentions a folk that could remind us of a near contemporary of Alexander that ended up reigning in Syria: Zelek the Ammonite (II Samuel 23:37).
This contemporary of Alexander previously would be Seulekus I Nicator. This Seulekus was the son of a man who had a high rank in Phillip’s army: Antiochus (Phillip’s general). Doesn’t the name “ZELEK” sound like the name “SEULEKUS”? Seulekus was a brave soldier and the Biblical Zelek is listed among David’s heroes.
(Seulekus I Nicator, founder of the Seulecid dynasty. Museo Nazionale, Naples)
In the year 321 B.C.E Seulekus became satrap of Babylon and in 305 B.C.E. he became king of an empire, his headquarters were in Syria. Can we prove that Zelek is Seulekus? No. But the names sound very similar.
(scene in the Greek-Macedonian border, August 2015. The Macedonian police had to use stun grenades to try to disperse a large group of Syrian migrants trying to cross the border into their country. Back in the times of Alexander the Macedonians invaded and occupied Syria establishing the “Seulecid kingdom”,…now the Syrians are flowing massively to Macedonia!)
DAVID’S GORGEOUS COMPANION & STATEIRA
The Bible says that David had been introduced to a very attractive woman named Abishag but somehow David did not sleep with her:
“So they sought for a lovely woman throughout all the territory of Israel, and found Abishag the Shunammite, and brought her to the king. The young woman was very lovely; and she cared for the king, and served him; but the king did not know her.”
(I Kings 1:3-4)
What happened to David? Well,…this Biblical story seems to find an echo in an Alexanderish tale. In the autumn of the year 333 B.C.E., after Darius had been defeated at the battle of Issus, an exceedingly beautiful woman named Stateira was introduced to Alexander. She was the daughter of Darius through a woman that was named Stateira like her (Stateira’s mother was Darius’ full blooded sister).
It is said that she was such a bewitching beauty that Alexander felt threatened by her, he felt that her indescribable beauty “shook” his sense of self dominion. We must understand that militaristic Alexander was “addicted” to discipline; an incarnated god like him should be able to master his emotions 110%. Stateira was so gorgeous looking that Alexander said that “she was torture to his eyes”.
Alexander ended up marrying her in 324 B.C.E. in a mass wedding that took place in Susa. Either way, this Persian wife of Alexander was supposedly killed Perdiccas and Roxanne, daughter of Oxyartes of Sogdia (Roxanne married Alexander in Balkh, in 327 B.C.E.).
(Alexander marries Stateira, Roman copy of a lost Greek original from Pompeii)
There are some who say that the Stateira that got married to Alexander died of some type of illness in the year 331. Maybe she was mistreated by Alexander? We don’t know for sure but, it is undeniable that there is a parallel between the Abishag mentioned in the book of kings and Stateira.
MAACAH & BARSINE
II Samuel 3:3 says that David had a son with a noble lady of Geshur named Maacah. She was a Syrian princess, the daughter of Talmai, king of Geshur. She gave birth to Absalom, David’s beloved and controversial son.
What does this have to do with Alexander? Some historians claim that Alexander impregnated a woman of royal status in Syria. Her name was “BARSINE”, she was the daughter of a Persian noble named Artabazus and she had been exposed to Greek culture in former times (it is said that she had been in Macedonia before).
Sometime after the battle of Issus, one of the generals of Alexander, Parmenio, took unexpected prisoners in Damascus as he was trying to capture the main Persian baggage train. That is how Barsine ended up in the hands of Alexander.
Barsine had been married before, twice actually. She had been the wife of two Rhodian mercenary brothers: Mentor & Memnon (she had children with Memnon). Sometime after Alexander blasted Phoenicia, Barsine bore Alexander a son that he named Heracles (he sacrificed to Herakles/Melkart at Tyre).
The story of Barsine, doesn’t it ring a bell when it comes to the tale of Syrian Maacah? Keep in mind also that the name “Maacah” could very well be a code for “Macedonia”:
Barsine and her son Heracles were seized in Pergamon and killed in Macedonia in 309 B.C.E. The man who orchestrated their demise was named Cassander (they died by the hands of the Macedonian general Polyperchon).
DAVID AND ALEXANDER ARE THIRSTY!
The Bible talks about a noble deed, a very noble deed done by David. This is what happened when David and his soldiers were undergoing a tough situation in battle:
“And David said with longing, ‘Oh, that someone would give me a drink of the water from the well of Bethlehem, which is by the gate!’ So the three mighty men broke through the camp of the Phillishtines, drew water from the well of Bethlehem that was by the gate, and took it and brough it to David. Nevertheless he would not drink it, but poured it out to the Lord. And he said, ‘Far be it from me, oh Lord, that I should do this! Is this not the blood of the men who went in jeopardy of their lives? Therefore he would not drink it.”
(II Samuel 23:15-17)
Something very, very similar happened to Alexander in the pretty much waterless Gedrosian desert when he was back to Iran from India (in the year 325 B.C.E.). This is what the writer Paul Cartledge has to say about thirsty-moribund Alexander:
“All in his party, himself included, were tormented by thirst, and many died. One day, some men almost miraculously found a little water and, carefully scooping it into a helmet, brought it to Alexander for him to drink. Ragingly thirsty though he was, he poured it untouched on the burning sand, as if to demonstrate that his life was no more valuable than those of his men.”
(Alexander the great [the hunt for a new past], by Paul Cartledge. The Overlook Press. Woordstock & New York. Pg 186)
(bronze portrait of Alexander, found in Boubon/Lycia. Possibly done by the sculptor Lysippos)
It is impossible to deny that there is a parallel here.
SHIMEI AND THE SCYTHIANS
Sometime after Absalom tried to cease the throne, David and his men were provoked by a Benjamite who cursed them continuously. II Samuel 16:6 says that this Israelite threw stones at David and at his servants. The provocateur was accompanied by mighty men.
“And as David and his men went along the road, Shimei went along the hillside opposite him and cursed as he went, threw stones at him and kicked up dust.”
(II Samuel 16:13)
What could this possibly have to do with Alexander? In 329 B.C.E., after Alexander had killed Bessus (the folk who murdered Darius), he began building a city in Khodzent/Tajikistan, by the Jaxartes river. All of the sudden a people known as “the Scythians”, started provoking him and his men.
Alexander could not tolerate that. So, he eventually crossed the Jaxartes river and blasted them. He killed about 1000 and captured about 150 alive:
“Alexander had shown them that he could come up with methods of beating their way of warfare. Within days they sent emissaries to ask for peace and an alliance, which he quickly agreed to. He had done exactly what he had hoped for, which was to make sure the Scythians would never dare cross the river and join his enemies in Sogdiana and Bactria.”
(Alexander the great [conqueror of the ancient world], by Tom McGowen. Enslow Publishers, Inc. pg 118)
(archer in Scythian dress, from the West pediment of the temple of Aphaia on Aegina. Parian marble, Munich)
Chapter 19th of the 2nd book of Samuel says that the disrespectful folk named Shimei apologized to David. As soon as David’s army crossed the Jordan on a ferry boat (the Jaxartes river?), Shimei postrated himself before the son of Jesse. David pardoned him and his men in the same way that Alexander pardoned the Scythians.
Once again, let us decode this:
• the Benjamite named Shimei provoked David & his men from the opposite hillside while the Scythians provoked Alexander from the opposite side of the Jaxartes river. Didn’t David had to cross the Jordan in a ferry boat in order to punish Shimei?
• Shimei ended up begging David for forgiveness and the Scythians found it prudent to make an alliance with Alexander.
(here we see the Rebbe of Chabad Lubavitch. It is a known fact that all Jews of Slavic background [Ashkenazim] are descended from the Scythian-Khazars)
SHEBA THE SON OF BICHRI AND SPITAMENES
A man from the hill country of Ephraim named Sheba rebelled against David. He was known as “Sheba, the son of Bichri”. When David went after him, Sheba and his fellow Bichrites found refuge in a place called Abel-Beth Maacah. David’s men began besieging the city; they battered the wall in order to throw it down. A wise woman from the city asked to speak to Joab, David’s commander. She asked Joab why they were blasting Abel-Beth Maacah, a mother city in Israel. Joab replied that they didn’t want to destroy her city; they simply wanted the rebel “Sheba”. Joab promised her that if they would surrender him they would withdraw from the city.
‘Then the woman said to Joab, “his head shall be thrown to you across the wall.” She went to all the people with her advice, and they cut off the head of Sheba, son of Bichri, and threw it out to Joab.’
(II Samuel 20:21-22)
This tale could remind us of an astute Sogdian baron who plagued Alexander with guerrilla wars. His name was Spitamenes and he was leading Sogdians, Bactrians, and Scythians against Alexander. (this took place after Bessus’ death). Spitamenes became a thorn in Alexander’s flesh in the same way that Sheba became a thorn in David’s flesh. Spitamenes gave Alexander three years of guerrilla war,… eventually he started running out of luck:
“Spitamenes, who soon became desperately short of essentials, was forced to risk open conflict with the Macedonians. After suffering a crushing defeat, Spitamenes fled into the wilderness with the Massagetae, a wild Scythian tribe. When the tribesmen learned that Alexander himself was approaching, they decapitated Spitamenes and sent his head to the Macedonian king.”
(Alexander the great: the invisible enemy [a biography], by John Maxwell O’Brien. Routledge, London and New York. Pg 140)
(Spitamenes was what the Taliban is today. The New York Times, Thursday, October 1st, 2015. A12)
It is said that the one who executed Spitamenes was his own wife. Can we say that the Biblical Sheba is Spitamenes? No, but the story of Sheba, son of Bichri rings a bell when it comes to the rebellious Sogdian leader. Let us analyze this:
• David was hunting a rebel known as Sheba of Bichri: Alexander was trying to eliminate a Sogdian rebel named Spitamenes.
• Sheba found refuge in the city of Abel-Beth Maacah: Spitamenes fled to the Massagetae.
• When the people of Abel-Beth Maacah felt threatened by David’s army they surrendered Sheba: when the Massagetae realized that Alexander was heading their way they killed Spitamenes.
• A woman played a major role in the death of Sheba: it is said that Spitamenes was executed by his own wife.
Are there similarities between Sheba and Spitamenes? Yes there are!
THE TEMPLE OF SOLOMON
When David was about to die he said the following words to his son Solomon:
“My son, as for me, it was in my mind to build a house to the name of the Lord my God; ‘but the word of the Lord came to me, saying, “you have shed much blood and made many great wars; you shall not build a house for my name, because you have shed much blood on the earth in my sight.’”
(I Chronicles 22:7-8)
David wanted to build a Temple for YHVH but he was unable to fulfill this wish. Alexander had a similar desire, when he was about to expire he stated that he wanted to build ZEUS a temple at Dium (Macedonia).
(head of Zeus, William’s college museum of art, Williamstown, Massachusets)
Dium was like “a Jerusalem”, it was a Macedonian sacred city at the foot of Mount Olympus.
(here we have the “famous Jerusalem-Temple of the Jews”…the Jews refer to the “Old city” as “IR ATTIKAH”, that is what Athens was called in former days: Attica)
Could it be possible that there is some type of symbolic connection between the Temple of Zeus at Dium and the Temple of Solomon? Let us see:
• David desires to build a house for his Lord YHVH right when his death was near. When Alexander was close to death he stated his wish to build a temple to Zeus in Dium/Macedonia.
• From a Biblical perspective the temple of Solomon was located on Mount Moriah and Alexander’s envisioned temple of Zeus was to be built on Mount Olympus.
• Jerusalem was a sacred city for the Biblical David and Dium was sacred to Alexander and the Macedonians.
THE HOLY ARK AND A FUNERAL CAR
The 2nd book of Samuel talks about how the ark of the covenant was transferred “ON A NEW CAR” from the house of Abinadad to the city of David. From a Biblical perspective this ark is of course the sacred ark of YHVH, the mysterious artifact that gave Israel many victories.
Then again, the ark that went from the house of Abinadad to the city of David might remind us of something else: the wheeled funeral car used to transport Alexander’s embalmed body from Babylon to Macedonia (as crazy as that sounds!…).
(the Ark of “the Lord”?…model built by the archaeologist Stella Miller-Collett based on the description by Diodorus. It is said that the car was pulled by sixty four mules)
On August 325 B.C.E. Alexander and his men left India and headed towards Persia. They reached Susa (Shushan) on February 324 B.C.E.
“Then the anger of the Lord was aroused against Uzzah, and God struck him there for his error; and he died there by the ark of God. And David became angry because of the Lord outbreak against Uzzah; and he called the name of the place PEREZ UZZAH to this day.”
(II Samuel 6:7-8)
Perez Uzzah? Could “PEREZ” be a reference to “PERSIA”? Could “UZZAH” be a reference to “SUSA”? The Bible says that David was affected by the death of Uzzah. Who exactly is this character known as Uzzah? Perhaps this could have something to do with the beloved Hephaestion of Alexander?
(Hephaestion died in Ecbatana/Hamadan in the summer of 324 B.C.E. Votive relief dedicated to ‘Hephaestion the hero’, by a certain Diogenes. Archaeological museum, Thessaloniki)
After Hephaestion’s death Alexander died of fever in Babylon on June 10, 323 B.C.E. He was 32 years old. Alexander’s body remained in Babylon for two years. Eventually, Alexander’s men placed his corpse in a wheeled funerary cart and headed towards his ancient homeland: Macedonia. Somehow Ptolemy I Soter hijacked the car in Damascus and took it to Egypt. This majestic strategy of Ptolemy took place in 321 B.C.E.
(Ptolemy I Soter, founder of the Greco-Macedonian dynasty in Egypt)
“So David would not move the ark of the Lord with him into the city of David; but David TOOK IT ASIDE into the house of Obed-Edom the Gittite.”
(II Samuel 6:10)
The ark was taken aside, meaning that it was taken somewhere else. Could this have something to do with Ptolemy’s political strategy? Could “Obed-Edom the Gittite” have something to do with the founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty? Ptolemy placed the body of Alexander in Memphis. He moved it to Alexandria later on (Alexander’s corpse was a symbol of imperial legitimacy).
“The ark of the Lord remained in the house of Obed-Edom the Gittite for three months. And the Lord blessed Obed-Edom and all his household.”
(II Samuel 6:11)
Three months: the temporary stay in Memphis? Obed-Edom is fully blessed: Ptolemy becoming legitimate in the land of the Pharaohs? Didn’t Ptolemy prosper in Egypt? Didn’t he become “Pharaoh”?
“So David went and brought up the ark of God from the house of Obed-edom TO THE CITY OF DAVID with gladness.”
(II Samuel 6:12)
The city of David: Iskandariya! Isn’t Alexandria the “CITY OF ALEXANDER”? Could it be possible that the CITY OF DAVID is really ALEXANDRIA? Alexandria was founded by Alexander on April 7th, 331 B.C.E.
(mosaic depicting Alexandria personified. Greco-Roman museum, Alexandria, 3rd century B.C.)
EZRA, NEHEMIAH, AND THE MASS WEDDINGS OF SUSA
The books of Ezra and Nehemiah both speak about how the remnant of Israel returned to Jerusalem in order to rebuild the Temple that had been originally built by Solomon. Cyrus II the great proclaimed throughout his kingdom that a temple should be built in Jerusalem for YHVH. Ezra 6:15 states that the temple was completed in the days of Darius.
It is said that the priest-scribe Ezra made a denunciation of mixed marriages that had taken place among Israel. Ezra told his people to send away their alien wives and their polluted offspring as well. What does this have to do with Alexander?
As we already know, Alexander conducted a mass weddings in Susa/Elam in 324 B.C.E. He was trying to create an Irano-Macedonian ruling class through these massive wedding, he made 10,000 Macedonians marry Asian women. Alexander himself married a daughter of Darius III (Stateira) and a daughter of Artaxerxes III (Parysatis). Hephaestion married a daughter of Darius III named Drypetis.
Chapter 10 of the book of Ezra says something very interesting when it comes to this:
“Then Shecaniah, the son of Jehiel, one of the sons of Elam, made this appeal to Ezra: We have indeed betrayed our God by taking as wives foreign women of the peoples of the land. Yet not even now there remains a hope for Israel.”
Foreign women of the peoples of the land? Doesn’t this remind us of the mass weddings in Susa/Elam? What a strange coincidence that Shecaniah is descended from “ELAM”!! Again, if we read Nehemiah 1:1 we will see that Nehemiah seem to be attached to Susa…! After Alexander’s death all the Macedonians repudiated their Asian wives except Seulekus I Nicator who ended up reigning in Syria (he married a Bactrian princess named “Apame”). Could it be possible that the son of Antiochus has something to do with the Jonathan Ben Asahel mentioned in Ezra 10:15?
(Craterus, loyal commander of Alexander. Craterus married the Persian princess Amastris, a cousin of Stateira. Eventually he repudiated her and arranged her marriage to a powerful ruler from the Black Sea coast)
(here we see a group of Greek fascists. Everything seems to indicate that those Macedonians that repudiated their non-European women saw themselves as some type of “kosher-race”. They surely were cruel)
Are Ezra and Nehemiah historical characters? It is impossible to determine this. When exactly did they live? In the times of Cyrus II? In the days of Artaxerxes I? In the days of Darius? Some scholars go as far as saying that the temple mentioned in the book of Ezra and in the book of Nehemiah was not built in Jerusalem but in Elephantine/Egypt.
Either way, the adventures of Ezra and Nehemiah ring a bell when it comes to the mass weddings in Susa/Elam. Some believe that Alexander resettled many Persians in what is today Yugoslavia.
ALEXANDER, ARTEMIS, AND THE FALL OF ASIA
It is said that on the night that Alexander was born, the temple of Artemis Ephesia burned down (in Ephesus/Turkey). The Magi of Artaxerxes interpreted that as a bad omen for Asia, they knew that the destruction of that temple meant that the destroyer of the Persian empire had been born (the temple of Artemis Ephesia was considered one of the seven wonders of the world).
(Artemis, Olympian virgin hunter, moon goddes, spirit of wild nature. Second century A.D. Roman sculpture of the fertility goddess Artemis)
(map of Ephesus, Turkey)
Chapter 19 of the book of Acts speaks of how the apostle Paul (Saul of Tarsus) caused an uprising in a very pagan region of Asia. The followers of Artemis at Ephesus felt that Paul was threatening their religious and national identity with his Christian doctrine. Paul eventually left Asia.
What does this have to do with Alexander III of Macedon? The upheaval mentioned in chapter 19 of the book of Acts is associated with Macedonia and with a certain Alexander who was supposedly Jewish. Acts 19:29 says that Paul’s companions at that time were two Macedonians: Gaius and Aristarchus. Acts 19:33-34 also mentions an influential “Jew” named Alexander, he tried to calm the enraged pro-Artemis rioters (the Ephesians refused to listen to him). Paul ended up leaving Asia and going to Macedonia.
Basically, chapter 19 of the book of Acts links Artemis Ephesia to the Macedonia that devoured Asia and to a Jewish politician named Alexander. Could it be possible that the scribe who wrote the book of Acts encrypted Alexander in it? Didn’t the temple of Artemis burn on the night that Alexander was born? Didn’t Alexander III conquer Asia?
(let us not forget that when Alexander invaded Asia he was not necessarily welcome in Ephesus)
DAVID AND NECTANEBO II
Some people believed that Alexander’s real father was Pharaoh Nectanebo II and not Phillip II. Nectanebo II was a king of the XXXth dynasty, Ptolemy I Soter certainly considered him to be Alexander’s mythical father (that certainly worked for Ptolemy’s benefit).
Chapter 5 of the 2nd book of Samuel says some intriguing things concerning David. It says that he was “30” years old when he became king (II Samuel 5:4). What does this have to do with Alexander?
Nectanebo II, mythical progenitor of Alexander, was Pharaoh of the XXXth dynasty. This is a weird correlation: David is 30 when begins ruling and Nectanebo was Pharaoh of the 30th dynasty…!
Chapter 5 of the 2nd book of Samuel appears to speak about Alexander’s birth and about his death (as crazy as that sounds!). II Samuel 5:5 says that David reigned for 7 years and 6 months in Hebron over Judah. Once again, what does this have to do with Alexander? By “7 years” the book of Samuel reaally means “the month of July” (the 7th month). When was Alexander born? Answer: as we already know July 20th, 356 B.C.E. Is it a coincidence? What does the book of Samuel mean by “6” months? By 6 months it means “the month of June” (month number 6). When did Alexander die? Answer: as we already know, on June 10th, 323 B.C.E. He died of fever in Babylon.
(head of Alexander, from Pergamon. Marble, Istanbul)
How old was Alexander when he passed away? Answer: he was nearly 33, he was 32 years old. II Samuel 5:5 says that David reigned 33 years in Jerusalem over Israel and Judah. The parallels here are simply undeniable!
DAVID AND EUMENES OF CARDIA
The 1st book of Samuel says that at one point David found himself in great trouble. Based on the Bible this took place when David was serving Achish, the Phillishti king of Gath. This is what the Scriptures tell us:
“Before David and his men reached Ziklag on the third day, the Amalekites had raided the Negev and Ziklag, had stormed the city, and set it on fire. THEY HAD TAKEN CAPTIVE THE WOMEN AND ALL WHO WERE IN THE CITY, YOUNG AND OLD, killing no one; they had carried them off when they left. David and his men arrived at the city to find it burned to the ground AND THEIR WIVES, SONS AND DAUGHTERS TAKEN CAPTIVE. Then David and those who were with him wept aloud until they could weep no more. David’s two wives, Ahinoam of Jezreel and Abigail, the widow of Nabal from Karmel, had also been carried off with the rest. Now David found himself in great difficulty, FOR THE MEN SPOKE OF STONING HIM, so bitter were they over the fate of their sons and daughters.”
(I Samuel 30: 1-6)
David’s men were angry; they had lost all their accumulated treasures from plundering plus they had lost their most precious jewels: their wives, their sons and their daughters. David’s men were enraged and they wanted to kill David. It is obvious that the son of Jesse was in a very delicate and dangerous situation.
What does this Biblical tale have to do with Alexander III of Macedon? In the year 316 B.C.E. (in the post Alexander era) a Greek commander of Alexander named ‘EUMENES’ underwent a calamity of “Davidic flavor”. The men in his army wanted him dead.
After Alexander’s death in 323 B.C.E. Alexander’s generals pretty much tore each other’s flesh in the name of power. One of those formidable commanders was the “Alexanderish” Eumenes, a Greek from Cardia (a non-Macedonian). Eumenes was in charge of an elite corps of infantry known as ‘THE SILVER SHIELDS’ (Argyraspides). The Silver Shields were pretty much an invincible band of supermen, athletes of war (they had been greatly honored by Alexander). Throughout time these veterans had accumulated great wealth from plundering.
In the year 316 B.C.E., the brilliant Eumenes fought a decisive battle against his mortal foe “ANTIGONUS ONE EYE”. This battle took place in Gabene/Iran. Antigonus “one eye” sent some light-armed cavalry to ride past the flank of Eumenes’ army and attack ‘THE BAGGAGE TRAIN’ behind it. This train contained piles of treasures from plunder, pay, and rewards. Antigonus also captured THE WOMEN AND THE CHILDREN.
When Eumenes’ men realized what had happened they were greatly vexed. The Silver Shields (many of them veterans in their 50’s and in their 60’s) had lost all they owned, including of course their wives, their sons and their daughters. They were enraged, beyond enraged,…so the xenophobic Silver Shields wanted to kill their non-Macedonian leader. They even called him “a pest from the Chersonese”. The Silver Shields made a covenant with Antigonus “one eye”: Eumenes for the baggage train.
The story of Euemes and the Silver Shields,..doesn’t it remind us of the story of David and his embittered soldiers? The Amalekites (the enemies of David) took exactly the same thing that Antigonus “one eye” took from Eumenes: the plunder, the women, and the sons and daughters. David’s men wanted to put David to death, pretty much the same thing that the Silver Shields wanted for Eumenes.
Interestingly enough, David’s men recovered their booty and Eumenes’ men recovered theirs as well (Eumenes was strangled to death by Antigonus one eye).
Can we say that David is Eumenes? No, but there are undeniable parallels between the story of David and the story of Eumenes.
THE KILLER OF ABIMELECH AND A GREEK WOMAN NAMED TIMOCLEA
In the 2nd book of Samuel, David mentions a brave woman associated with a location called Thebez:
“Who killed Abimelech, son of Jerubaal? Was it not a woman who threw a millstone down on him from the wall above, so that he died in Thebez?”
(II Samuel 11:21)
Who is this woman exactly and what does she have to do with the tale of Alexander? In 338 B.C.E. Phillip II conquered Thebes and in 335 B.C.E. (after Phillip’s death) Alexander turned Thebes upside-down teaching them a lesson they would never forget.
There was an incident in Thebes that could remind us of the woman who killed Abimelech, the son of Jerubaal. In 335 B.C.E. when Alexander was unleashing his wrath on Thebes, a band of Thracians demolished the house of an honorable Greek woman named “TIMOCLEA”. They stole everything she had and on top of that a captain violated her.
As if this was not enough, when the officer was done raping her he asked her if she had any concealed silver or gold. Timoclea responded that she had hid her treasures in a well by her garden. When the captain stooped down to examine the well she pushed him in threw stones into it killing him.
When the Thracians realized what had happened they took her to Alexander. Alexander interrogated her. Timoclea responded with a firm posture, she said to Alexander that she was the sister of Theagenes, a Greek martyr who had fought honorably against Phillip II. Alexander was so impressed by her courage that he set her free.
(Greek woman. Head of a female found near Keratea in Attica. Marble, Berlin)
This honorable Greek woman Timoclea, doesn’t she ring a bell when it comes to the lady that killed Abimelech? The woman who killed Abimelech, didn’t she throw a millstone on Abimelech from the wall above? Didn’t Timoclea throw stones on the captain who violated her from the top of the well? Abimelech, didn’t he die in location called Thebez? The captain who raped Timoclea, didn’t he died in Thebes?
We cannot say that the Biblical character who killed Abimelech with a millstone is the same as the historical Timoclea but, there are similarities here.
PART II: ALEXANDER AND NABUCHADNEZZAR
Most people have heard about a Babylonian king named Nabuchadnezzar (N’bu-kudurri-ssar. Everyone knows that he plundered Judah and Jerusalem and that he took the Israelites captive to Babylon. How do people know this? Well,…they have relied on a source of information called “the Bible”. Have they researched historical and archaeological sources when it comes to Nabuchadnezzar? Answer: for the most part “NO”.
The world imagines Nabuchadnezzar as a brown-skinned Arab looking king (like a Saddam Hussein) but, is this the truth? The Rabbis for example say that Nabuchadnezzar blasted Jerusalem in 587 B.C. but, the only Middle Eastern king that was vibrant at that time (& truly significant) was Cambyses I of Persia (590-559). This Cambyses is not known for subjugating Jerusalem or for enslaving any Israelites. Cambyses II (son of Cyrus the great) is not known for blasting the Jews either (let us not forget that the Assyrian war machine had exiled Israel to the lands of the Medes in previous times).
Some scholars have stated that there were four Babylonian kings that went by the name Nabuchadnezzar, they claim that the one who conducted five campaigns against Jerusalem was Nabuchadnezzar II, contemporary of Pharaoh Necho II of the XXVI dynasty. These raids supossedly took place from 598 B.C. to 582 B.C. (Cyrus I ruled Persia from 620-590). The Nabuchadnezzar that had friction with the folks of the XXVI dynasty, was he really that important?
So, who is this famous Nabuchadnezzar of “Gilgamesh status”? Should we digest everything that the Bible tells us simply because it is the Holy Bible? Can we rely on politically correct archaeologists that are scared of challenging religious authorities? The sacred scriptures say that he (Nabuchadnezzar) destroyed the Temple built by king Solomon but, the closest thing to a “historical Solomon” is Amenhotep III, Pharaoh of the XVIII dynasty. This political strategist and pacifist didn’t reign over Palestinian Jerusalem, he reigned in Egypt.
(Amenhotep III, Pharaoh of the XVIII dynasty)
(Amenhotep IV, son of Amenhotep III. Amenhotep IV was also known as Akhenaton, he was a reformer and a religious fanatic. He created the monotheistic cult of the Aten. Akhenaton is the closest thing there is to a historical Moses)
As one can see, this is very confusing:
• Based on the Tanach, Nabuchadnezzar destroyed a temple that was located in Jerusalem/Palestine. If Solomon can be identified with Amenhotep III, then the temple was not in Jerusalem but in Egypt.
• The Biblical Nabuchadnezzar is said to have destroyed this temple in 587 B.C. The only significant Middle Eastern king at that time was Cambyses I and he didn’t have any significant campaigns in what is today Jerusalem.
It is not easy to solve the “Nabuchadnezzar-Israel” puzzle. It is said that the last significant king of Babylon was a folk named Nabonidus, he was deposed by Cyrus (Nabonidus was unpopular with the priests of Bel). Nabonidus ruled from 556 to 539 B.C. He fathered a son named “Nidintu-Bel” who took the royal name of Nabuchadnezzar but he didn’t last for too long either;…Darius I executed him. Then finally there was an Armenian named Arakha who styled himself as a new Nabuchadnezzar in Babylon. In 521 B.C. Arakha and his followers were mutilated and impaled. The Nabuchadnezzar puzzle surely is complicated.
One thing is certain, when one opens the Bible and reads about Nabuchadnezzar, he or she automatically thinks of this king as a “very ancient king”,…one would never identify this Nabuchadnezzar guy with Alexander of Macedonia. The fact of the matter is that the Biblical Nabuchadnezzar is indeed Alexander and the Rabbis don’t want us to know that. Why? Because that has profound political implications, that would mean that the famous temple of Solomon that was destroyed by Nabuchadnezzar was the “TYRE TEMPLE” (the fortified city of Tyre/Lebanon blasted in 334 B.C.E.). In other words, when Alexander reached the area that is known as Syria-Palaestina, the only significant entities that he found there were the following:
• Samaria (the Samarians never recognized the Jerusalem Temple destroyed by Titus Vespasianus in 70 A.D.).
There was nothing significant in Jerusalem at that time:
“The Jews had thus far remained nearly invisible to Alexander and his generals, though the Macedonians had crossed right through their territory and even, perhaps, entered the holy city. Not a single historian of the Alexander period mentions the Jews or Jerusalem, an omission that a later writer, the Romanized Jew Josephus, takes as a sign of ill will.”
(Ghost on the throne [the death of Alexander the great and the war for crown and empire], by James Romm. Alfred A. Knoff. pg 186)
How come a majestic king like Alexander didn’t pay any attention to the godly Temple of Solomon? Why is it that Greek and Roman historians didn’t record Alexander’s deeds in glorious Jerusalem? Is it because the historians were “anti-Semites”? Let us zoom in on the Jerusalem Temple issue.
WHAT DO THE JEWS SAY ABOUT ALEXANDER?
Jewish tradition says that after the siege of Tyre Alexander had some type of interactivity with the Samaritans. Jewish sources claim that the people of Sebastes tried to turn Alexander against the Jews but they failed in their attempt. The truth is that Alexander’s army established a garrison in Samaria in the days of Sanballat III, the man in charge was a Macedonian commander named Androchus. After a while the Samaritans rebelled and burned the garrison commander alive (in 331 B.C.E.). Alexander punished them severely.
(Samaritan priest with a scroll of the Law)
The Jews claim that Alexander went up to Zophim, a location in the North of Jerusalem and that there HE KNELT BEFORE THE LEADER OF THE JEWS. The main Jewish authority at that time was either Jaddua (Jaddus) or a certain “Simon the tzadik” (Simon the righteous) who was supposedly a priest.
(painting by Sebastiano Conca [1680-1764]. Spain/Madrid, Museo del Prado)
Based on what the Jews say, Alexander honored Simon, the chief priests, the elders, and the leading citizens. He also offered sacrifices in the Temple and granted them (the Jews) many privileges.
(the Kotel [Western Wall]. A holy site for the Jews in Jerusalem)
Jewish sources also claim that the main leader of the Jews at the time, the Kohen Gadol, appeared to Alexander in a dream confirming his victory over Darius. We are of course expected to believe this but, the truth is that this is a Jewish fable, nothing more. Why would a SHA of SHAS like Alexander kneel before a few non-Macedonians who were narrow-minded monotheists? Why would a “Dionysos lover” like Alexander bow before Jaddus or Shimon?
(are we expected to believe that drunken-pagan Alexander renounced polytheism for the sake of Rabbinical monotheism?)
Also, how is it possible that Alexander didn’t notice the magnificent Beit HaMikdash? He paid more than enough attention to Tyre and he certainly paid attention to fortified Gaza! Obviously, there’s something that the Rabbis don’t want us to know, whatever that “something” is!…
The Macedonians certainly interacted with the people of Samaria but as far as Jerusalem goes, …no one knows for sure what took place (that is “IF ANYTHING AT ALL” took place).
One thing is clear, more than clear:
In their infinite arrogance the Jews expect us to believe that Alexander, king of kings, master of the world, an Achilles like hero, knelt before them and recognized YHVH as the ‘TRUE LIVING GOD’. This is not just a lie, it is “A PATHETIC LIE”. Do you think Benjamin Netanyahu wants us to know that Gaza was more important than Jerusalem in the times of Alexander?
(Jerusalem: the holy city disputed between the Israelis and the Palestinians…Miami Herald. Sunday, October 11, 2015. 20A)
ALEXANDER IN THE BOOK OF EZEKIEL
The book of Ezekiel talks about a Nabuchadnezzar that obviously has many parallels with our Alexander. Here’s the kind of stuff we find in the book of Ezekiel:
“And they shall destroy the walls of Tyre and break down her towers; I will also scrape her dust from her, and make her like the top of a rock.”
Does this not illustrate what Alexander did to Tyre in 334 B.C.E.?
“Behold, I will bring against Tyre from the North Nabuchadnezzar king of Babylon, king of kings, with horses, with chariots, and with horsemen, and an army with many people.”
Here we see that Nabuchadnezzar is called “king of kings”, an emperor. Was Alexander not an emperor? Didn’t he reign over many kingdoms? The center of his empire, was it not Babylon?
“He will slay with the sword your daughter villages in the fields; he will heap up a siege mound against you, build a wall against you, and raise a defense against you.”
Daughter villages: didn’t Alexander subjugate all the “daughter villages” of Phoenicia? Didn’t Sidon submit to him? Didn’t he neutralize the Phoenician fleet of Cyprus? He will heap up a siege mound against you: Didn’t he build a large bridge from Old Tyre to New Tyre? Didn’t he blast the walls of the fortified and apparently unbreakable island?
(Acts 21:4 links Tyre to Jerusalem)
“He will direct his battering rams against your walls, and with his axes he will break down your towers.”
(the battering rams used by the Macedonian army must have resembled the ones used by the Romans. Here’s a model of a battering ram, museum Della Civilta Romana, Alinari)
“Because of the abundance of his horses, their dust will cover you; your walls will shake at the noise of the horsemen, the wagons, and the chariots, when he enters your gates, as men enters a city that has been breached.”
Everyone knows that Alexander saw himself as a god. The book of Ezekiel mentions a figure that reminds us of Alexander:
“Son of man, say to the prince of Tyre, ‘thus says the Lord God: “because your heart is lifted up, and you say, ‘I am a god, I sit in the seat of the gods, in the midst of the seas,’ yet you are a man, and not a god, though you set your heart as the heart of a god.”
It is a known fact that right before his death in 323 B.C.E. Alexander demanded to be worshipped as a god, especially throughout the Greek world. It is unclear if he thought he was really a god or if he just did that in order to solidify his empire. Either way, the world remembers Alexander as an incarnated god.
We know that Alexander did not collect wages from the Tyrians (no gold or silver). He invested all his might in the “Tyre endeavor” but it did not profit him materially. It was a political victory that boosted the morale of his mighty army. Here’s what the book of Ezekiel says about it:
“Son of man, Nabuchadnezzar king of Babylon caused his army to labor strenuously against Tyre; every head was made bald, and every shoulder rubbed raw; yet neither he nor his army received wages from Tyre, for the labor which they expended on it.”
Finally, the book of Ezekiel speaks of Egypt. Alexander’s army didn’t have to attack the land that eventually welcomed Ptolemy. Egypt actually crowned Alexander as Pharaoh as we all know. Here’s what the book of Ezekiel says about this:
“Therefore thus says the Lord God; ‘surely I will give the land of Egypt to Nabuchadnezzar king of Babylon; he shall take away her wealth, carry off her spoil, and remove her pillage; and that will be the wages for his army.”
Logically, the book of Ezekiel was written sometime after Alexander conquered the land that Hadrian called “Syria Palaestina”. Perhaps it was written after 323 B.C.E. Jewish scribes must have manufactured this book (the book of Ezekiel) in Egypt under Ptolemy I Soter. The Rabbis don’t want us to know that for obvious reasons.
ALEXANDER AS NABUCHADNEZZAR IN THE BOOK OF DANIEL
How do we know that the Nabuchadnezzar talked about in the book of Daniel is Alexander? This Nabuchadnezzar took the Israelites captive to Babylon, Daniel happened to be one of them. If the Nabuchadnezzar of the book of Daniel is Alexander, then that means that the historical Daniel (if there is one) had to be a Tyrian, meaning a Lebanese. What signs can we find in the book of Daniel linking Nabuchadnezzar to the Macedonian conquistador? Let us see:
• Daniel 2:37 says that Nabuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, was king of kings, emperor. Didn’t Alexander have his headquarters in Babylon? Wasn’t he the Lord of Asia, the king of kings? Shah of Shahs?
• Daniel 5:28 says that the kingdom of Belshazzar (son of Nabuchadnezzar) was given to the Medes and the Persians. The historical Belshazzar had to be Arses-Artaxerxes IV (Darius III had him killed). Was the mother of Darius not a Mede? Daniel 6:1 identifies the inheritor of the empire as Darius the Mede.
(Darius III is usually described as “a Mede”. Median guard, Persepolis, 6th-5th centuries B.C.)
(Alexander finds the body of Darius III. Majestic artwork by the godly French artist Gustav Dore)
Basically the overall outcome of the book of Daniel goes something like this:
• Belshazzar: Artaxerxes IV, son of Artaxerxes III.
• Darius the Mede: Darius III, murderer of Artaxerxes IV.
• Nabuchadnezzar: Alexander III the great, master of Asia.
Keep in mind that the book of Daniel is a book of “codified symbolisms”, it is not a history book. No hermetic chronology will be found in it.
In Chapter 10 of the book of Daniel we hear about Cyrus, whom the Jews call “Koresh”. Based on the information we find in the book of Daniel, Daniel apparently lived in his time. But, how could this be possible? There were two Cyruses, Cyrus I and Cyrus II (the great). Did Daniel live a life of a thousand years? Here’s a complete list of the Achaemenid kings:
• Teispes, 650-620.
• Cyrus I, 620-590 (the Cyrus mentioned in Chapter 10 of the book of Daniel?).
• Cambyses I, 590-559.
• Cyrus II the Great, 559-530 (the Cyrus mentioned in Chapter 10 of the book of Daniel?).
• Cambyses II (son) 530-522. From Cambyses II to Darius II Ochus the Persians ruled over Egypt, this was the XXVII dynasty, late period.
• Bardiya (brother) 522.
• Darius I (relative of Cambyses) 522-486.
• Xerxes I (son) 486-465.
• Artaxerxes I (son) 465-424.
• Xerxes II (son) 424.
• Darius II Ochus (bastard brother) 424-404.
• Artaxerxes II Arsaces (son) 404-359.
• Artaxerxes III Ochus (son) 359-338.
• Artaxerxes IV Arses (son) 338-336. This apparently is the “Belshazzar” mentioned in the book of Daniel. From Artaxerxes IV Arses to Darius III the Persians ruled over Egypt, this was the XXXI dynasty, late period.
• Darius III Artashata (relative) 336-330. This is “Darius the Mede”, the one defeated by Alexander.
(Darius I the great. Bisitun, rock relief, detail. 6th century B.C.)
(Xerxes I, scene from the film “The 300 Spartans” directed by Rudolph Mate )
So, the Biblical Daniel served Alexander-Nabuchadnezzar but he also served Cyrus! Really? Finally, on Daniel 10:20 we find what appears to be a transparent trace of Alexander. This passage speaks of “a rising Greek king”. Who could this king be if not Alexander III the great?
Last but not least, there is a location in Muslim Alexandria that links Alexander to Daniel. There is a Mosque in the center of Iskandariya (in the hill of burials) known as “Nabi Daniel Mosque”. Some say that this is because of an Islamic scholar named Mohammed Daniel but either way, the name “Daniel” somehow emerges linked to Zul Qarnein, the two horned prophet! Didn’t Ptolemy I Soter bury Alexander in Alexandria?
It is obvious that the book of Daniel was written sometime after the death of Antiochus IV Epiphanes (he died in Persia). The Nabuchadnezzar mentioned in the book of Daniel was not an Arab, it was a red-haired Caucasian Macedonian.
THE PRO-DARIUS BOOK OF ESTHER
“Two great dragons came on, both poised for combat. They uttered a mighty cry, and at their cry every nation prepared for war, to fight against the race of the just.”
(Esther, Chapter A: 5-6. Mordechai’s foretelling of the clash between Macedonia & Persia)
Most people believe that the book of Esther is a very ancient book that goes all the way back to the times of Xerxes. Are they right? The truth is that the book of Esther was written sometime after Alexander’s death. If we scrutinize this fascinating book we will see the tale of Darius and Alexander flickering before our very eyes.
The New American Bible (Catholic Readers Edition) first mentions an “Ahasverosh” that is identified as Xerxes I, son of Darius I (Esther A:1).
(the Babylonians offer tribute to Darius I in Persepolis)
In Esther 1:1 we find a different Ahashverosh, a king who reigned from Ethiopia to India. He ruled over one hundred and twenty seven provinces. The New American Bible identifies this “Shah of Shahs” as Darius the great.
This 2nd Ahashverosh had a key figure in his kingdom, a folk known as “Mordechai the Jew” (he is described as a “captive of Nabuchadnezzar”). Mordechai was a Benjamite like Saul and as we already know, Saul shared parallels with Phillip II. Mordechai was the foster father of a Jewish beauty named Esther, she was his cousin. Ahashverosh ended up marrying Hadassah-Esther and Esther in turn delivered the Jewish people from the hand of a villain named Haman.
Is Mordechai a historical figure? Well,…the name Mordechai (Mardukai) derives from the name Marduk. Bel-Marduk was the chief Babylonian god. Why is this significant? Let us not forget that the capital of Alexander’s empire was in Babylon. His triumphal entry in Babylon through the “ISHTAR GATE” (Ishtar = Esther) was in 330 B.C.E. He entered it a 2nd time in 324 B.C.E. after his return from India. This decorated gate was right next to the palace of Nabuchadnezzar! The gate was linked directly by processional route to the Esagila, the temple of Marduk.
(Ishtar gate built in the times of Nabuchadnezzar II, reconstructed at the Berlin museum of the ancient near east)
(Ebih-Il, steward of the temple of Ishtar at Mari around the year 2400 B.C.)
The irrefutable proof that this Ahashverosh is indeed Darius III is found in Chapter D:9 of the book of Esther. As we already know, Darius III married his full sister Stateira and in Esther D:9 Ahashverosh says the following words to Esther: “I am your brother”. A coincidence?
As far as Haman goes, he seems to be a new version of Alexander, a demonized version. The biblical Haman is the son of “Hammedatha the Agagite” and he cared for two eunuchs that were put to death because of Mordechai (they were plotting against Ahashverosh). What does this Haman have to do with Alexander?
We already saw that the name “Agag” rings a bell when it comes to Alexander’s father (Agag = Ageae). The two eunuchs that conspired against Ahashverosh were Bagathan & Thares (Esther, Chapter A:12). Darius III had two eunuchs that went by the same name: Bagoas. Doesn’t the name Bagathan sound like the name Bagoas? Baga-than = Bagoas. One of these Bagoas was favored by Alexander, in 330 B.C.E. a teenager named Bagoas was introduced to Alexander by Nabarzanes, Darius’ grand vizier. Coincidences?
As if this is not enough, Chapter E:10 of the book of Esther defines Haman as a “MACEDONIAN”, an alien to Persia. Doesn’t this remind us of Alexander? Doesn’t “HAMAN” sound like “HAMON”, meaning the “AMMON” of Siwah who supposedly begat Alexander? Esther E:14 even says that through deception Haman tried to transfer the rule of the Persians over to the Macedonians.
(Baal Hamon, god of the Carthaginians)
Finally, we have the “SUSA” element (Susa was a location in Elam). As we already know, in 324 B.C.E. Alexander arranged mixed marriages in Susa between Macedonians and Persians; he was trying to unify his empire through blood ties. What does this have to do with the book of Esther? Let us see:
• Esther A:2 describes Mordechai as a resident of Susa.
• Esther 1:2 states that Ahashverosh was enthroned in Susa.
• Haman and his 10 sons were hanged in Susa.
(brick decorations from the palace of Darius the Great, Susa)
The whole book of Esther seems to revolve around the administrative capital of Susa.
Without any doubt, the book of Esther was written sometime after 323 B.C.E. and it was written by someone who disliked Alexander (at least it looks that way). The book of Esther-Ishtar is not as ancient as we think!
ALEXANDER CONQUERS GAZA
The book of Jeremiah also deals with a Nabuchadnezzar that rises against Jerusalem. Chapter 38 of the book of Jeremiah mentions a Gazite that resembles the leader of Gaza encountered by Alexander in 332 B.C.E., this was Batis the eunuch (Alexander pounded on Gaza from September to November).
Jeremiah 38:7 speaks of an “Ebed-Melech” (servant-king) who assisted the prophet Jeremiah. Jeremiah 38:7 describes Ebed Melech as a “Cushite”, meaning an Ethiopian looking man who had a position of authority. It is a known fact that Batis was dark skinned like an Ethiopian. Also, Ebed-Melech was a courtier in the palace of Zedekiah which means that he was an eucnuch.
Was Batis not an Eunuch? It is undeniable that the Ebed-Melech of the book of Jeremiah is Batis, the martyr of Gaza. This is of course confusing and controversial,… the Bible, the sacred document of the West is praising a dark skinned eunuch that is connected to a martyr of Gaza. Isn’t Gaza the home of the terrorist organization called Hamas? Controversial stuff indeed!!
(Acts 8:26-27 mentions an Ethiopian eunuch from Gaza that remind us of the Batis that Alexander dragged from a chariot [the same thing that Achilles did to Hector of Troy])
Basically, the book of Jeremiah speaks of more than one Nabuchadnezzar. Since Batis of Gaza is mentioned in this book, that means that the book of Jeremiah was written sometime after Alexander’s death.
(Batis still refuses to kneel before Alexander! New York Post. Monday, August 31, 2015. pg 8)
NABUCHADNEZZAR, TRAJAN, AND ALEXANDER
The book of Judith speaks of Nabuchadnezzar, king of the Assyrians, a ruler of Nineveh that conducted military campaigns against the Medes. This Assyrian Nabuchadnezzar fought against a Median king named Arphaxad; Arphaxad apparently had his headquarters in fortified Ecbatana (Hamadan). Nabuchadnezzar waged war against him in Raghae (Teheran).
The Assyrian king had a huge army, many peoples were fighting for him. They all came together to fight against the Cheleoud (Chaldeans). Nabuchadnezzar then tried to enhance his troops, he tried to recruit personnel from the following regions:
• Lebanon and anti-Lebanon (Phoenicia).
• Palestinians: Carmel, Gilead, Galilee, Esdraelon, Samaria, Jerusalem, Bethany, Chelous, and Kadesh.
• Egypt and Ethiopia.
• Jordan: Ammon and Moab (the Ammonites & the Edomites eventually became mercenaries of Nabuchadnezzar’s army).
For some reason the king of Assyria was not able to recruit these people and he became enraged, he swore to destroy Cilicia and Judea. He eventually conquered Media and killed Arphaxad in Raghae. After that, he decided to punish all those who had resisted him, meaning the people of Cilicia and the peoples of Syria-Palaestina (he would crush their religious identity).
A folk named Holofernes was in charge of Nabuchadnezzar’s great army. This Holofernes did exactly what Nabuchadnezzar wanted bringing havoc to all those who refused to aid him during the anti-Raghae campaign (Holofernes encamped his army between Geba & Esdraelon).
The book of Judith says that the Israelites feared the presence of this Holofernes, their main concern was their temple in Jerusalem. Judith 4:3 states that the temple at that time was free of profanation and that it was functioning properly.
Holofernes then inquired about the Israelites, he consulted the people of Moab and Ammon. An Ammonite named Achior told Holofernes that at one point the temple of the Jews was razed to the ground and that the population was enslaved.
Since the Israelites were behind a fortification in Bethulia, Holofernes decided to kill them by hunger and thirst. Suddenly, a bewitching beauty named Judith interceded for Israel, she managed to have an interview with Holofernes and after getting him drunk, she beheaded him “Jael style”.
(Judith and Holofernes, painting by Francisco de Goya [1746-1828])
So, who exactly is the Nabuchadnezzar mentioned in the book of Judith? And who exactly is the Holofernes tricked by the hot Jewish model? This Nabuchadnezzar was obviously not an Arab, the ancient Assyrians were actually a Caucasian people (the ancestors of the modern Germans). So, who is this mysterious king of Nineveh?
Could it be possible that this was indeed the Roman emperor Marcus Ulpius Traianus? Alexanderish Trajan became “imperator” on January 27th, 98 C.E. while in Germany, he became known as “Caesar Nerva Traianus Germanicus”.
(portrait of Trajan, Museo Capitolino, Rome)
The scribes that created the book of Judith are aware of the Assyrian heritage of the Germans so, since they disguised Trajan as Nabuchadnezzar and he (Trajan) obtained the crown in Deutschland, they defined Nabuchadnezzar as “an Assyrian”.
(to the left: emperor Trajan, the “Alexander” of the Roman empire. To the right: Alexander III)
Optimus Princeps defeated Parthia (Iran), Armenia, Mesopotamia, Adiabene, Syria, and Transjordan (he renamed the Ammon/Moab area “Arabia Petrae”). As we already know, Assyrian Nabuchadnezzar destroyed the Median Arphaxad in Raghae (Iran). From 115 to 116 C.E. Trajan was busy in the Persian Gulf area, he captured Ctesiphon in the year 115. (Babylon and Mesopotamia became his subjects). Around that time the Jews had started a great rebellion in North Africa killing many Greeks and Romans, they aligned with Parthia in 116 C.E. (the Jews committed “Islamic State” type of atrocities in those days). They had to be stopped!
(here we see the masked devils of “Islamic State” about to behead 21 Egyptian Christians in North Africa. This is the kind of stuff the Jews did back in the days of Trajan)
Who is Holofernes? Could this be Quintus Marcius Turbo, Trajan’s right hand? Turbo did what he had to do in order to restore order, this is probably why the Jews ended up hating him so much.
What about the temple of the Jews? Judith 5:18 says that this temple had been razed to the ground before. This is of course a reference to Titus Vespasianus, the Roman who destroyed Jerusalem in 70 A.D.
(the Roman Emperor Titus Vespasianus, son of Vespasian. Titus was born on December 30th, 39 A.D. He became Emperor in 79 A.D. Titus passed away on September 13th, 81 A.D.)
(Jewish war captives carrying the Temple lampstand in the triumphal procession. Arch of Titus, Rome. Alinari)
What does this have to do with Alexander of Macedon? Chapter 12 of the book of Judith says that Holofernes was served by an eunuch that was named Bagoas, like the folk who served both Darius III and Alexander (Judith 12:11). Alexander met the Persian Bagoas in 330 B.C.E. (Darius III was served by two eunuchs that went by the same name: Bagoas).
As we all know, Judith seduced Holofernes and got him drunk. When he fell asleep she killed him. This could remind us of the Artaxerxes that was killed by a Bagoas that was following Darius’ orders (Artaxerxes IV, Arses). The Bagoas that killed Artaxerxes IV was not the teenager favored by Alexander, it was the older Bagoas.
So, basically the story of Judith is a product of Trajan and Alexander. Let us not forget that Trajan saw himself as “an Alexander”. Like Alexander, Trajan met his end in Asia. He died in Selinus/Cilicia in August 7th (or 8th?) 117 C.E. He was aproximately 64 years old…this explains why the Assyrian Nabuchadnezzar was so determined to destroy Cilicia. Cilicia was Trajan’s grave.
The book of Judith surely has an “Alexanderish flavor”, Trajan was to some extent a new incarnation of the Macedonian demigod.
PART III: ALEXANDER AND THE TEMPLE OF THE JEWS
The Rabbis claim that two Jerusalem-Temples have been destroyed:
• the temple of Solomon which is known as “the 1st Temple” (the politically correct version says that it was destroyed by Nabuchadnezzar in 587 B.C.).
• the Temple ravaged by Titus Vespasianus in 70 A.D.
As we have already seen, the so called first Temple was not in Jerusalem. That fortification which the Rabbis call the “Beit Ha Mikdash” (house of the Holy) was not a temple so to speak, it was a fortified city. This fortified city was located in Tyre/Lebanon, not in Jerusalem/Israel. This great fortified city that venerated Melkart/Herakles was destroyed by Alexander III in 334 B.C.E. The Rabbis decided to call Alexander “Nabuchadnezzar”.
The temple known as “the 2nd temple” was located on Mount Moriah, in Jerusalem. This temple certainly stood on what is today Jerusalem, it was destroyed as we already know, by the son of Vespasian: Titus Vespasianus.
(portrait of Titus as a magistrate, late 1st century, Vatican Museum)
So yes, Jews have the right to live in Jerusalem. Some Muslim extremists claim that the Beit HaMIkdash never stood on Mount Moriah but this is a lie, there was a temple there and it was destroyed by a Roman emperor named Titus Vespasianus.
The question here is not if the Jews have the right to rule over Jerusalem or what have you, the real question goes as follows:
“When exactly was the temple known as ‘the 2nd temple’ built and by who?”
As I already mentioned, the closest thing to a historical Solomon is Amenhotep III, father of the reformer Akhenaton (Akhenaton is the closest thing to a historical Moses). Amenhotep III reigned in Egypt during the XVIII dynasty, his kingdom was not in Jerusalem. So once again, when was the temple known as “the 2nd temple” built? How did it come about?
ANTIOCHUS IV EPIPHANES AND THE TEMPLE IN JERUSALEM
Could it be possible that the temple destroyed by Titus in 70 A.D. was built in the times of Antiochus IV Epiphanes, king of the Seulecid kingdom? As crazy as this sounds but this could be the actual truth. Could it be possible that the ultra-kosher temple of the orthodox Jews is an offshoot of pagan Macedonia? If this is true the Rabbis would never allow people to know about it.
The 1st book of Maccabees says that in the times of Antiochus IV Epiphanes a gymnasium was built in Jerusalem. This book also declares that he, Antiochus IV Epiphanes, son of Antiochus III, built the city of David:
“Then they built up the city of David with a high, massive wall and strong towers, and it became their citadel. There they installed a sinful race, perverse men, who fortified themselves inside it, storing up weapons and provisions, and depositing there the plunder they had collected from Jerusalem.”
(I Maccabees 1:33-35)
It is said that on the 15th day of the month of Chislev, in the year 145, the Seulecid king erected a statue of Zeus Olympios in the temple. Zeus Olympios is the “Baal Shammaim” of the Syrians (Lord of the heavens). When one reads the 1st book of Maccabees he or she might be under the impression that when Epimanes got there everything was already set up. But, could it be possible that the Syro-Macedonian military base built in Jerusalem has something to do with the temple blasted by Titus? Later on the hero Judah Maccabee (ally of Rome) reconstructed and purified this temple:
“At that time they built high walls and strong towers around Mount Zion, to prevent the gentiles from coming and trampling over it as they had done before.”
(I Maccabees 4:60)
(tablet of the 2nd temple period. The inscription written in Greek forbids the Greeks entering the Temple area [under penalty of death])
If the temple destroyed in 70 A.D. was actually built in the times of the Seulecids, then that would mean that the famous “Beit HaMikdash” is not as ancient as we thought. Yes, it is true that there were Israelites in Palestine in the times of the Assyrian kings,…yes it is true, king Yaua, son of Humri, bowed to Shalmanaser III. But, the temple that Titus razed to the ground came about in the times of the Seulecids.
Antiochus IV Epiphanes was born in 215 B.C. and died in 164 B.C. He ruled from 175 till 163 B.C.
A JERUSALEM TEMPLE THAT WAS NOT IN JERUSALEM?
The 2nd book of kings speaks of a pro-YHVH Israelite named Hezekiah, who reigned in Jerusalem. Not only did this king of Judah reign in Jerusalem, he reigned there for twenty nine years.
During his reign Shalmanaser V, king of Assyria, besieged Samaria.The inhabitants of Sebastes were deported to Media (Iran). Then in Hezekiah’s 14th year an Assyrian king named Sennacheriv took the fortified cities of Judah, he occupied Lachish. Hezekiah was forced to give him the great riches of his kingdom.
Apparently Sennacheriv was not satiated by Hezekiah;s offerings, he sent representatives to Hezekiah in Jerusalem. The commander of the Assyrian army gave Hezekiah the following message:
“On whom, then, do you rely, that you rebel against me? This Egypt, the staff on which you rely, is in fact a broken reed which pierces the hand of anyone who leans on it. That is what Pharaoh, king of Egypt, is to all who rely on him.”
(II Kings 18:20-21)
Egypt? Pharaoh? II Kings 18:24 says Hezekiah relied on Egypt for chariots and horsemen. How could this be? Didn’t he have a Judean army in Jerusalem? II Kings 18:26 says that Hezekiah’s people understood Aramaic but not the Judean tongue. Then II Kings 19:9 tells us that the king of Assyria was told that Tirhakah, king of Ethiopia, had come to fight against him. Could it be possible that this Judean king who “reigned in Jerusalem” was a Cushite like Batis of Gaza?
(sphinx of Pharaoh Tarhakah)
Tarhakah was an Ethiopian king who reigned in Egypt during the XXV dynasty. It is interesting that this Tarhakah reigned during the “25” dynasty, II Kings 18:2 says that Hezekiah was “25” when he became king! There were three Ethiopian Pharaohs in the XXV dynasty:
• Sabakos (716-702).
• Shabataku (the pro-Hephaistos Sethos-Shabataka mentioned in Herodotus 2.141). 702-690.
• Taharqa (690-664).
Three Nubian kings in the XXV dynasty? This is what we find in II Kings18:1:
“In the 3rd year of Hoshea, son of Elah, king of Israel, Hezekiah, son of Ahaz, king of Judah, began to reign.”
Three Nubian kings = in the “3rd” year of Hoshea,…in Herodotus 2.141 we see that Shabataka’s Egypt was delivered from the hand of Sennacheriv by a miracle. A plague of mice devoured the weapons of the Assyrians neutralizing them. Sethos-Shabataka was a priest of Hephaistos. Hezekiah experienced a miracle as well, based on what the 2nd book of Kings says, an “angel of the Lord” destroyed 185,000 Assyrian soldiers. Sennacheriv retreated to Nineveh (check II Kings 19:35-36).
So, the Bible tells us that Hezekiah the Judean reigned in Jerusalem but as we have seen, he seems to have an “Ethiopian flavor”. Was he a Judean? Did he reign in Jerusalem? Did he have a temple for YHVH in Jerusalem? There is an archaeological piece out there known as “the Taylor prism” which mentions Hezekiah and the Assyrian king Sennacheriv. In this piece Sennacheriv states that he imprisoned Hezekiah the Judean in his own royal city: Jerusalem.
(the six sided prism discovered in Nineveh/Iraq by the British Colonel R. Taylor in 1830. British museum of London)
If Hezekiah did indeed reign in what is today Jerusalem/Palestine, why did the Bible scribes mingled him with the Pharaohs of the XXV dynasty? Why is it that the Biblical story of Hezekiah is so similar to the story of the Sethos-Shabataka mentioned in the writings of Herodotus? Why so much mystery? Are the Rabbis hiding something?
Note: Sennacheriv (Sin-ahhe-criba) was the son of Sargon II. Nineveh oriented Sennacheriv began reigning in Assyria in 704 B.C. He sacked Lachish (Palestine) in 701 B.C. He died in 681 B.C.
(the Assyrian war machine besieges Lachish. British museum of London)
ZOOMING INTO THE 1ST TEMPLE
We already know that the temple that the Rabbis call “the 1st Temple” is the fortified city of Tyre that Alexander destroyed in 332 B.C.E. What happened to the Tyrians that fought so bravely for their city? What fate awaited them? It’s been said that after Alexander punished the Tyrian nation by crucifying 2000 of them by the shores, he supposedly sold more than 10,000 women and children into slavery.
What most people don’t know is that the Macedonian king resettled them in what is today Albania. Alexander must have arranged mass weddings between Macedonian men and Tyrian women (a political strategy). Somehow their offspring ended up in the Albania of Illyrian flavor.
What is the capital of Muslim Albania? Answer: Tirana. The name “TIRANA”,…doesn’t it sound like “TYRE”? Let us see:
(the Coat of Arms of Tirana, capital of Albania)
If we analyze the Coat of Arms of Tirana, we will see Tyre’s entire history encrypted in it. How do we know that the modern Albanians have a connection with the Tyrians conquered by Alexander? Well, if we look at the obelisk depicted in the shield of Tirana, we will the the sixteen-pointed sunburst that represents the Macedonian nation. The symbol of Macedon is at the very top of the obelisk, that means that though Tyrian blood runs through the veins of the Albanians, they ultimately consider themselves the true heirs of ancient Macedonia.
(the national symbol of Macedonia, meaning the 16 pointed sunburst, is found in the shield of Tirana)
Then we have an impressive looking fortress in the shield of Tirana. Doesn’t this remind us of the walled city of Tyre? If we pay close attention we will see that this castle has seven openings, seven windows…what are these windows? These seven openings are equivalent to the “SEVEN” month siege of New Tyre.
(to the right: there are “SEVEN” bricks right under the Macedonian sunburst, seven bricks: seven months of resistance)
We all know that obelisks, no matter in what culture, are symbols of vigour and power, symbols of masculinity: bravery, valour, courage. In other words, an obelisk is a phallic symbol.
The shield of Tirana, when did it come about? The Coat of Arms of Tirana was approved on November 14th, 2000. Why is this date significant? What does it have to do with Alexander the great? Well, Egypt crowned Alexander as Pharaoh in Memphis on November 14th, 332 B.C.E. right after he subjugated Tyre. This is why the shielf of Tirana subliminally depicts a vigorous Alexander. The ancient Tyrians were men of valour, sons of Melkart, a people of testicular fortitude.
(Meryamun Setepenre [Alexander] pays homage to the Egyptian god Min. “Beloved of Ra, son of Ammon, Alksnders’”. A chapel was dedicated to Alexander inside the great temple of Amenhotep III, at Luxor/Egypt. Alexander became Pharaoh on November 14th, 332 B.C.E.)
(Alexander offers a libation to Amun-Min, relief on the outer wall of the sanctuary in the temple of Amun at Luxor)
(Pharaoh Alexander encoded in the Tirana Coat of Arms?)
(it could be possible that the lion in the shield of Tirana has an association with Herakles. The two eight pointed stars represent the unity of Macedonia and Tyre, 8 + 8 = 16. 16: the 16 pointed sunburst of Macedonia. Keep in mind also that Alexander had to build two moles in order to subjugate the indomitable Tyrians)
It is more than obvious that the modern Albanians have a direct connection to ancient Tyre (and to Alexander of course). The Albanians certainly are an emanation of the “1st TEMPLE”. When was it that Nabuchadnezzar blasted the temple of Jerusalem? According to the Rabbis, this took place in the Hebrew month of Av which is pretty much equivalent to August. It is a known fact that by August 332 B.C.E. Alexander had completed his mission in Lebanon.
So yes, the Albanians have a connection with the 1st Temple!
PART IV: ALEXANDER IN PRACTICAL TERMS…
(tetradrachm of Alexander minted by Ptolemy I showing Alexander wearing the attributes of Zeus-Ammon. 318 B.C. silver, British Museum of London)
“At that time the Nephillim appeared on the earth, after the sons of heaven had intercourse with the daughters of man, who bore them sons. They were the heroes of old, the men of renown.”
Some people say that history repeats itself. Are they right? The Persians always were the arch enemy of the freedom loving Greeks. One day there was a Macedonian of royal blood named Alexander that fulfilled the dream of all Greeks: to conquer the apparently invincible Persian empire.
(Persian guard, stairway of the tripylon. Persepolis, 6th-5th centuries B.C.)
As of 2015 we are no longer living in the times of Darius III or in the times of Alexander III yet, nothing seems to have changed. A nuclear Iran backed by Russia is on the rise, they wish to wipe out Israel and it looks like someone wants to crush Greece as well. Ever since 2010 Hellas has fallen into an economical collapse, it almost seems as if the Washington based “International Monetary Fund” is forcing them to abandon the Euro and re-embrace the Drachma of Eastern flavor.
(Sun Sentinel. Wednesday, July 1st, 2015.3A)
As far as the Euro-zone goes, Germany appears to be the entity who is pressuring Greece the most. This could remind us of how ancient Assyrian kings (the ancestors of the Germans) subjugated and conquered populations in Palestine. Germany is the number one partner of Iran in the P5 +1 group (a group of six world powers). The Greeks are not Jews and the Jews are not Greeks but somehow there seems to be an invisible thread connecting them. There must be a reason why the 1st book of Maccabees says that the Spartans and the Jews are blood brothers (I Maccabees 12:21).
(USA Today. Friday, July 24, 2015. 7A)
Sometime after September 11th 2001 the New World Order decided that Iran would be crowned as king of the Middle East, the sons of Innana would raise their heads once again. The Ancient Order of the Ages has codified Iran under the number 21 symbolizing the 21 rays of Innana. The Persian calendar begins on March 21st, that is what the Iranians call “Now Ruz” (Daniel 10:13 says that the guardian angel of Persia confronted Daniel for 21 days!).
Ever since the terrorist group ISIS (Islamic State) came about in the month of Tammuz (June 29,2014) blood has been spilled all over the Middle East. The ancient gods cry for blood! A resurrected Persia demands to be honored with human blood!
(Sayyed Ali Khameini, supreme leader of Islamic Iran)
When did it become obvious that Greece was mortally wounded? Answer: in 2010. 2010 = 21, the Iran code. Who is the leader of the Christian Orthodox country known as Greece? Answer: a folk named Alexis Tsipras, Alexis sounds like “Alexander”. What must the Greeks do in a time of heavy national stress? Answer: they must return to the old gods, they must offer human blood.
On June 30th, 2015 an Indonesian military plane crashed into the nation’s 3rd largest city killing more than seventy people. The plane C-130 Hercules had twelve crew members and more than one hundred passengers, all military personnel and their families. What does this calamity have to do with the economical disaster of Greece?
As crazy as it might sound, the accident that took place in Indonesia on June 30th, 2015 was not an accident, it was a camouflaged human sacrifice (June 30th, 2015: Tammuz 13, 5775).
(Wall Street Journal. Wednesday. July 1st, 2015. A8. Vol.CCLXVI, No 1)
A sacrifice? To who? Answer: to the indomitable and immortal spirit of Alexander III the great. Through the complex mechanisms of the New World Order, Greece offered C-130 Hercules to Alexander, god of all Hellas. Let us decode this:
• the plane was called C-130 Hercules, it was named after the famous Herakles. Wasn’t Alexander descended from Herakles? Didn’t Phillip II claim descent from the Heraklean bloodline of the Argeads? Didn’t Alexander sacrifice to Herakles/Melkart in Tyre in 334 B.C.E.? Is it a coincidence that the victims of C-130 Hercules were all military personnel? Warrior blood for the greatest conquistador of all time!
(victorious Herakles wearing the skin of the Nemean lion. Vase-painting dating from the beginning of the 5th Century B.C.. Martin von Wagner Museum der Universitat, Wurzburg)
• As we already know this human sacrifice took place on June 30th, 2015. Why is this date significant? Alexander died on June 10th 323 B.C.E. June 10th 2015 + 21 days = June 30th, the day of the mega-blood offering. Alexander was born on July 20th 356 B.C.E. From June 30th, 2015 to July 20th, 2015 we have 21 days! Alexander was born on the 201st day of the year according to the Gregorian calendar, 201 = 21, the code for Iran. He was destined to conquer Persia.
• the sacrifice is obviously associated with the number of the Persians: 21. Post 9-11 era favors Iran and the Greeks know this. The plane crashed into the 3rd largest city of Indonesia killing more than 70 people. 7-0 =7. 7 multiplied by 3 (3rd largest city) = 21, the Iran code.
• C-130 Hercules has been in service since 1964. 2015-1964 = 51. 51 = P5 +1. P5 +1 is a group of six world powers that negotiate with Iran of nuclear aspirations. The six powers are Russia, China, France, Germany, U.K, & USA. Germany is the key trading partner of Iran.
• Greece’s downward spiral began, as we already know, in 2010. 2010 = 21, the Iran code.
• The sacrifice took place on a tuesday. Tuesday is equivalent to Ares and Mars, both gods of war.
(on July 20th 1944 a group of Germans tried to assasinate Adolf Hitler, the attempt failed. This took place in Ketrzyn/Poland. Why did they choose Alexander’s birthday? And who was really behind that? If they would have succeeded,…it would have been a “DAVIDIC VICTORY” in a Poland aligned with Jewish energies)
So yes, on June 30th, 2015 through the New World Order, Greece exhalted their incarnated god Alexander!
ALEXANDER AND ISRAEL’S SIX DAY WAR
“The tactics of the Greeks and the Macedonians were formed on very different principles. The strength of the phalanx depended on SIXTEEN RANKS OF LONG SPIKES, wedged together in the closest array.”
(Edward Gibbon [1737-1794], Chapter I.48.)
(Alexander in the guise of Herakles wearing the skin of the Nemean lion. Found in a shrine of Sparta, possibly done by the portraitist Lysippos)
On June 5th, 1967 Israel fought her hostile Arab neighbors for the third time. This 3rd Arab-Israeli conflict is known as “THE SIX DAY WAR”. Israel fought mainly against Egypt, Syria, and Jordan. On the third day of the war (on June 7th) Israel recaptured Jerusalem (undisputable capital of the Jewish people),…it was a unique moment in Jewish history! By June 10th Israel had prevailed over the Arab armies.
The phenomenon known as ‘THE SIX DAY WAR’,…what could possibly have to do with Alexander III of Macedon? If we scrutinize the date of Israel’s victory we might indeed discover some amazing things that will blow our minds. Let us decode the puzzle:
• By June 10th, 1967 Israel had been declared victorious. June 10th, 1967 = 06/10/1967. 06 + 10 = 16. The symbol of the Macedonian army was a 16 pointed sunburst.
• The ‘SIX DAY WAR’ took place as we already know in 1967. 1 + 9 + 6 + 7 = 23. When did Israel obtain Jerusalem? Answer: on the 3rd day of the war (June 7th). So,…3 (06/07/1967) + 23 (1 + 9 + 6 + 7 = 23) = 323. Alexander died in 323 B.C.E.
• When did the SIX DAY WAR end? Answer: on June 10th, 1967. Didn’t Alexander die on June 10th 323 B.C.E.?
(Israeli paratroopers by the Western Wall, June 1967)
So, as we can see, there is a profound spiritual connection between Alexander the great and Israel’s Davidic victory in 1967. It almost seems as if the “MANES” of Alexander gave Jerusalem to the Ashkenazi Jews!!! As we can see, Alexander never died, he is still here with us. He is immortal, he is eternal, he is Alexander.
(marble statue of Alexander. Pella archaeological museum)
(scene of a winged giant fighting against the Gods, Pergamum frieze. His wings and his reptilian looking legs symbolize ‘DIVINE ORIGIN’. Didn’t Alexander see himself as a living God? Didn’t he try to outdo the Gods themselves? Alexander was a giant and it is undeniable that there was something magical about him)
Thank you very much for taking the time to read this article. Remember: I never to be a professional historian and I never claimed to have all the answers (I have no college degree). As I mentioned at the very beginning of this article: I am simply a TRUTH SEEKER.
(Alexander the Great meets Diogenes of Sinope. Pierre Puget, royal collection)
• ALEXANDER III THE GREAT: king of Macedonia & conqueror of Asia. Son of Phillip II of Macedon and of Olympias of Epirus. Born in Pella/Macedonia on July 20th 356 B.C.E. Died of fever in Babylon on June 10th 323 B.C.E. at the age of 32.
• PHILLIP II OF MACEDON: King of Macedonia (359-336). Son of Amyntas III. By 338 B.C.E. he had transformed Macedonia into the mega-power of the Greek world. Died in Aegae (Vergina) on July 336 B.C.E., he was 46 years old when he died. It is said that Phillip was a descendant of Heracles.
• EURYDICE: Phillip’s mother, half Illyrian.
• ALEXANDER II: Phillip II’s brother.
• PERDIKKAS III: Phillip II’s brother.
• OLYMPIAS: Greek princess of Epirus, the mountanous region bordering Albania (originally named “Myrtale” & also known as “Polyxena”). Sister of Alexander of Molossia, wife of Phillip II of Macedon, and mother of Alexander III. She was a snake handler and a devotee of Dionysus, belonged to the snake-handling cult of the Kaberoi gods of Samothrace. She was stoned to death in public in 316 B.C.E. by the orders of Cassander. It is said that Olympias was a descendant of Neoptolemus, son of Achilles.
• NEOPTOLEMUS: father of Olympias, king of Epirus.
• ARRYBAS: uncle of Olympias.
• ALEXANDER OF MOLOSSIA: Olympias’ brother, king of Molossian federation of southern Epirus. Also client of Phillip II of Macedon. Died fighting in Italy in 330 B.C.E.
• CLEOPATRA: daughter of Phillip II and of Olympias, Alexander’s full sister. She got married to Alexander of Molossia at Aegae in 336 B.C. E. ,she gave birth to a boy and a girl. Cleopatra was murdered in Sardis around 308 B.C.E., she was attempting to marry Ptolemy I.
• DEIDAMEIA: Olympia’s grandniece.
• ACACIDES: Deidameia’s father, Olympia’s nephew.
• AUDATA: wife of Phillip II, daughter of a troublesome Illyrian king on Macedon’s north frontier. She gave birth to Cynane.
• PHILA: wife of Phillip II, Macedonian princess from Elimiotis. Childless.
• NICESIPOLIS: wife of Phillip II, a Thessalian.
• THESSALONICE: daughter of Nicesipolis. When Nicesipolis died, Olympias raised Thessalonice as her own.
• MEDA: wife of Phillip II, a Danubian princess. Phillip married her in 341 B.C.E., she was the daughter of the king of the Getae.
• ATHEAS: it is believed that in 339 B.C.E. Phillip II married Atheas, a Scythian princess. The king of Dobruja gave her to Phillip II.
• PHILINNA OF LARISSA: wife of Phillip II, mother of Phillip Arrhidaeus.
• PHILLIP ARRHIDAEUS: son of Phillip II of Macedon, Alexander’s half brother. He was also known as Phillip III. Killed by Olympias on September 317 B.C.E.
• AMYNTAS: son of Perdikkas III, agent of Phillip II. He married Kynnane, Phillip II’s daughter. Eventually he was executed by Alexander.
• ADEA: daughter of Cynnane and wife of Phillip III (Arrhidaeus). She changed her name to Eurydice. Olympias forced Adea to take her own life.
• PAMMENES: Phillip II’s old host, commander of the Thebans.
• ARRHIDAEUS: officer assigned by Perdiccas to oversee everything related to Alexander’s funeral (this Arrhidaeus must not be confused with the son of Phillip II).
• CLEOPATRA: niece and ward of the Macedonian noble Attalus, also known as Euridice. She was the last wife of Phillip II. She committed suicide in 336 B.C.E.
• CARANUS: alleged son of Cleopatra (Attalus’ niece), murdered after Phillip’s death.
• EUROPA: alleged daughter of Cleopatra (Attalus’ niece), murdered after Phillip’s death.
• LEONIDAS: relative of Olympias and foster father to Alexander when Phillip was away.
• PAUSANIAS: member of the inner royal bodyguard of Macedonia. He murdered Phillip II at Aegae in 336 B.C.E. Pausanias was killed right after.
• HERMOCRATES: tutor of Pausanias (the man who assassinated Phillip II).
• PLEURIAS: Illyrian king who fought against Phillip II.
• PAUSANIAS: the man that died heroically defending Phillip II from Pleurias’ attack (not to be confused with the Pausanias that murdered Phillip II).
• ATTALUS: friend of Alexander, one of the killers of Pausanias (not to be confused with the Attalus who insulted Alexander in public).
• HEPHAESTION: Alexander’s childhood friend. Commander of the Macedonian army in 330, bodyguard of Alexander, and finally grand vizier. Died in Ecbatana/Media in 324 B.C.E.
• DRYPETIS: wife of Hephaestion and daughter of Darius III. She married him in 324 B.C.E. during the mass weddings of Susa.
• ARISTANDER OF TELMESSUS: Alexander’s chief seer.
• PARMENIO: Macedonian noble. Premier general of Phillip II and deputy of Alexander until 330 B.C.E. He was the father of Philotas.
• PHILOTAS: Macedonian noble, oldest son of Parmenio. Commander of Alexander until 330 B.C.E.
• CLEANDER: the man who stabbed Parmenion on the side and in the chest, it’s been said that he severed Parmenion’s head and sent it to Alexander.
• ANTIGONE: Philotas’ wife, she worked as an informer for Alexander.
• HECTOR: a son of Parmenio, died in Egypt in 331 B.C.E.
• ATTARRHIAS: loyal veteran of Alexander, arrested Philotas.
• POLYDAMAS: recruited by Alexander to deliver orders to several members of general staff that called on them to assassinate Parmenio.
• AMYNTAS: the man who accused Philotas of conspiracy.
• NICANOR: a son of Parmenio, died of illness.
• DEMETRIUS: royal bodyguard acquitted during the trial of Philotas.
• DIMNUS: young Macedonian who planned to kill Alexander.
• CELIBANUS: Macedonian who knew about Dimnus plot and informed both Philotas and then Metron (a page in charge of the armory). Dimnus got the information from his brother Nichomechus. Philotas failed to report the news but Metron did tell Alexander.
• CLEITUS THE BLACK: Macedonian noble, son of Dropides. Brother of Alexander’s wet nurse. Saved Alexander’s life at Granicus, murdered by Alexander in 328 B.C.E.
• LANICE: sister of Cleitus the black, her three sons fought for Alexander.
• PROTEAS: Lanice’s son, officer & drinking companion of Alexander.
• ANAXARCUS: philosopher that calmed Alexander after Cleitus’ death.
• PROTISELAUS: first Greek warrior to set foot in Asian soil during the conquest of Troy.
• DEIADES OF THESSALY: the man in charge of Alexander’s siege equipment.
• AZEMILK: Tyrian king defeated by Alexander.
• STRATON: son of Gerostratus, prince of the Aradians (Arwad). He surrendered Aradus, Marathus, Sigon, and Mariamme to Alexander. Sraton, son of Gerostratus died fighting the Tyrians on behalf of Alexander.
• ENYLUS: king of Byblos (Gebal).
• ASCLEPIODORUS: satrap of Syria appointed by Alexander.
• MITHRIDATES: son in law of the Persian king, killed by Alexander at Granicus.
• RHOESAKES: Persian nobleman, sheared off part of Alexander’s helmet with his scimitar. Killed by Alexander at Granicus.
• SPITHRIDATES: brother of Rhoesakes, almost killed Alexander. Cleitus the black cut off his arm and finished him off.
• NABARZANES: Persian grand vizier.
• SATIBARZANES: satrap of Areia, rebelled against Alexander.
• PIXODARUS OF CARIA: a dynast in southern Asia Minor.
• ADA: queen of Halicarnassus, daughter of Hecatomnos and sister of Idrieus.
• THESSALUS: prominent actor who engaged in negotiations with Pixodarus on behalf of Alexander.
• AMYNTAS SON OF ANTIOCHUS: left Macedonia out of hostility for Alexander and became a mercenary commander in the Persian army.
• ARRHABAEUS: son of Aeropus from the princely house of Lyncestis, arrested and executed after Pausanias murdered Phillip.
• HEROMENES: son of Aeropus from the princely house of Lyncestis, arrested and executed after Pausanias murdered Phillip.
• ORONTOBATES: strap of Caria, he commanded a large force of Asiatics in Halicarnassus.
• EPHIALTES: Athenian exile in Halicarnassus, he commanded a large force of Greek mercenaries.
• CALLISTHENES OF OLYNTHUS: official historian of Alexander, nephew of Aristotle. He was executed by Alexander for alleged treason.
• HERMOLAUS: son of Sopolis, royal page of Alexander. Ring-leader of a conspiracy against Alexander, he wanted to kill Alexander in his sleep. Ptolemy informed Alexander of the plot and Hermolaus was put to death.
• HECATEUS: sent to Asia by Alexander with orders to bring Attalus back alive or to kill him in Asia.
• ATTALUS: Macedonian noble. Ward of Cleopatra-Euridice and son in law of Parmenion. Alexander had him killed in 336 B.C.E.
• DARIUS III: Artashata-Daryavaush, great grandson of Darius II. Born in 380 B.C.E. King of Persia after having murdered Artaxerxes IV. Darius III died in 330 B.C.E.
• OXYATHRES: brother of Darius III, appointed as Alexander’s companion.
• SISYGAMBIS: mother of Darius III and captive of Alexander after the Issus battle. It is said that Alexander had an affair with her.
• BESSUS: satrap of Bactria, relative of Darius III. After he had Darius killed he assumed the title Arataxerxes V. He died by Alexander’s hands in 329 B.C.E.
• BARSINE: Persian noble, daughter of Artabazus. Ex-wife of Mentor and Memnon, two Rhodian mercenary brothers. She gave Alexander a son that was named Heracles. Barsine and her son were killed in Macedonia either in 309 or in 308 B.C.E.
• ARTABAZUS: father of Barsine, son of Pharnabazus I. It is said that Artabazus had seven sons.
• MEMNON: Greek mercenary from Rhodes at the service of Persia, ex-husband of Barsine.
• HERACLES: son of Barsine, never acknowledged by Alexander. Summoned from Pergamon to Macedonia , strangled by Polyperchon. Heracles died either in 309 or in 308 B.C.E.
• STATEIRA: wife of Darius III (she was his full sister), a captive of Alexander after the battle of Issus. Died in 331 B.C.E.
• STATEIRA: daughter of Darius III and Stateira. Stateira married Alexander at the mass wedding of Susa in 324 B.C.E.
• CALLIXEINA: Thessalian courtesan hired by Phillip & Olympias. Phillip & Olympias wanted Alexander to have intercourse with her but Alexander refused.
• PARYSATIS: Persian princess who married Alexander.
• BAGOAS: young Persian eunuch introduced to Alexander in 330 B.C.E. at Zadracarta. He had served Darius III.
• BAGOAS: killer of Artaxerxes III in 338 B.C.E., grand vizier of Persia, after he killed Artaxerxes IV (Arses) in 336 B.C.E. Darius III became king. It is believed that king Darius killed him.
• ORSINES: Persian noble & rival of Bagoas, supplanted the satrap of Persis Phrasaortes without permission. He was executed for his presumption.
• MENANDER: satrap of Lydia.
• AMYNTAS: Macedonian exile who supported Darius III, adviser during the battle of Issus.
• ROXANE: daughter of a Sogdian Baron of Oxyartes named Spitamenes. She became Alexander’s wife, mother of Alexander IV. She was murdered in 311 B.C.E. with her son.
• ALEXANDER IV: son of Alexander III with Roxane, joint ruler of the empire with Phillip III Arrhidaeus in 332 B.C.E. Murdered in 311 B.C.E.
• PTOLEMY I SOTER: Macedonian noble and founder of Ptolemaic Egypt in 305 B.C.E. (son of a Macedonian named Lagus), Childhood friend of Alexander and and Marshal of his empire.
• ARTACAMA: Asian wife of Ptolemy, sister of Barsine.
• BERENICE: Ptolemy’s official wife, mother of Ptolemy II and Arsinoe (royal bloodline). She was the cousin of Eurydice, the daughter of Antipater.
• EURIDYCE: youngest daughter of Antipater, she got married to Ptolemy I Soter.
• PTOLEMY II PHILADELPHUS: son of Ptolemy and Berenice.
• THAIS: attractive Athenian courtesan, Ptolemy’s partner. She gave birth to two boys (Leontiscus & Lagus) and one girl.
• CLEOMENES OF NAUCRATIS: a Greek, unscrupulous finance minister of Ptolemy I. Ptolemy eliminated him.
• SEULEKUS NIKATOR (the victorious): son of Antiochus, Phillip II’s general. Founder of the Seulecid kingdom. He was stabbed to death by Ptolemy Keraunos.
• APAMA: Iranian wife of Seulekus I Nikator. She died either on 299 or in 298 B.C.E.
• ANTIOCHUS: son of Seulekus I Nikator.
• AKHAIOS: son of Seulekus I Nikator.
• ADMETUS: the first of Alexander’s men to enter the walls of Tyre.
• ANTIPATER: soldier-statesman, regent of Macedonia during Alexander’s Asian campaign. Father of Cassander & Iolaus.
• NICANOR: Antipater’s son.
• ALEXANDER THE LYCESTIAN: son in law of Antipater, first to salute Alexander as king. He was sentenced to death in 333 B.C.E. for conspiracy.
• CASSANDER: son of Antipater, hailed as king of Macedonia in 305 B.C.E.
• ALEXARCHOS: brother of Cassander.
• PHILA: Cassander’s sister, she took her own life.
• AGIS III: Spartan king defeated by Antipater in 331 B.C.E.
• POLYPERCHON: upper Macedonian from Tymphaea, competitor of Cassander for the throne of Macedonia. Polyperchon was a major player in the succession wars before dying in 309 B.C.E.
• ALEXANDER: Polyperchon’s son.
• IOLAUS: brother of Cassander, wine pourer of Alexander at Babylon. He is believed to have poisoned Alexander.
• MEDIUS: male lover of Iolaus.
• CRATERUS: son in law of Antipater, commander of Alexander. Died fighting Eumenes in Asia Minor in 321 B.C.E.
• AMASTRIS: Craterus’ Asian wife, cousin of Stateira. After Craterus repudiated her she married a powerful ruler in the Black Sea coast (Turkish twon of Amasra) named Dionysios. Later on she ended up marrying Lysimachus (Lysimachus renounced Amastris for Arsinoe II, daughter of Ptolemy I). Amastris was murdered by her own sons in 284 B.C.E.
• DIONYSIOS: tyrant of Herakleia Pontike on the Black Sea coast of Bythinia, husband of Amastris.
• PHILA: daughter of Antipater, ex-wife of Balacrus. She ended up marrying Craterus.
• LYSIMACHUS: royal bodyguard who tried to restrain Alexander during his brawl to Cleitus, major player in the Alexandrine succession wars.
• NEARCHUS: Cretan commander of Alexander.
• ARISTONOUS: one of Alexander’s bodyguards.
• EUMENES: Greek chief secretary of Alexander, ultimately a commander. Eumenes was a defender of the Argead bloodline, he was strangled by Antigonus in 317 B.C.E.
• NEOPTOLEMUS: Macedonian general, killed by Eumenes.
• HIERONYMUS: Eumenes’ close friend and countryman.
• ANTIGENES: leader of the corps elite known as “THE SILVER SHIELDS” (an invincible crew of 3000).
• TEUTAMUS: co-captain of the Silver Shields.
• LEONNATUS: royal bodyguard of Alexander, related to Macedonian royal family through Phillip II’s mother. Satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia.
• DEMARATUS OF CORINTH: acquired Bucephalas for Alexander.
• TIMOCLEA: brave & honorable widow from Thebes who didn’t bow to Macedonia, she was the sister of Theagenes. Alexander freed her.
• CLEITUS THE WHITE: Macedonian admiral.
• PERDICCAS: Macedonian noble. Bodyguard of Alexander, cavalry commander, and eventually grand vizier. De Facto regent after Alexander’s death. On the night of June 6, 323 B.C.E. moribund Alexander gave Perdiccas his signet ring. Perdiccas died in Ptolemy’s Egypt in 321 B.C.E.
• NICAEA: daughter of Antipater, bride –to be of Perdiccas.
• ALCETAS: Perdiccas’ younger brother, killer of Cynnane. He took his own life in Termessus.
• PHEITON: appointed as satrap of Media by Perdiccas.
• ANTIGONUS MONOPHTHALMUS (Antigonus One-Eye): Macedonian noble. Appointed satrap of greater Phrygia by Alexander. He played a major role in Alexandrine succession wars, he died fighting in Phrygia in 301 B.C.E.
• STRATONICE: Macedonian wife of Antigonus (satrap of Phrygia).
• DEMETRIUS: son of Antigonus.
• TELESPHOROS: nephew of Antigonus One-Eye.
• POLEMAIOS: nephew of Antigonus One-Eye.
• STRATONICE: Seulekus’ wife, daughter of Demetrios (son of Antigonus One-Eye).
• ANTIGONUS GONATAS: son of Demetrios.
• MEDIUS OF LARISA: a drinking companion of Alexander from Thessaly.
• COENUS: the man who opposed Alexander at Beas (during the mutiny). He died of an unspecified illness at Jhellum. Coenus was the brother of Cleander.
• PARNUCHES: Lycian interpreter.
• BATIS: Arab governor of Gaza, offered a fierce resistance to Alexander in 334 B.C.E. He died as a martyr.
• ANAXIMENES: historian from Lampsacus who tried to persuade Alexander to bypass the city.
• ARSAMES: Persian satrap of Cilicia, fled from Alexander.
• ASTAPES: satrap of Carmania, executed by Alexander.
• MITHRINES: Persian commander in charge of Sardis, surrendered city to Alexander.
• MAZAEUS: satrap of Babylon at the service of Persia.
• APHOLLODORUS OF AMPHIPOLIS: commander of the force which Alexander left behind with Mazaeus.
• PEITHAGORAS: brother of Apollodorus, a seer.
• BATOPHANES: keeper of the royal treasury in Babylon.
• CALANUS: a renegade Indian gymnosophist that joined Alexander’s expedition. He offered himself to the flames in Persis, he died at the age of 73.
• DANDAMIS: leader of the gymnosophists.
• TAXILES: also known as Omphis. One of the first Indian kings to submit to Alexander.
• PORUS OF PAURAVA: brave Indian king defeated by Alexander, proved to be a loyal ally afterwards. It is said that Porus was killed by a captain named Eudamus.
• PORUS: rebellious cousin of Porus of Paurava.
• ABISARES OF KASHMIR: Indian king who surrendered to Alexander.
• SOPHITES: Indian king who surrendered to Alexander.
• ONESICRITUS: Alexander’s royal helmsman, sent to inquire about the beliefs of the Indian gymnosophists. Onesicritus was a student of the Greek philosopher Diogenes of Sinope.
• SISICOTTUS: Indian guardian of the rock of Aornus appointed by Alexander.
• DIOGENES OF SINOPE: famous cynic philosopher, a contemporary of Alexander.
• ZOPYRION: Alexander’s general in Thrace.
• PHILLIP: appointed as satrap of India by Alexander, he was killed by a captain named Eudamus during a mutiny.
• PHILLIP THE ACARNANIAN: Alexander’s official doctor, saved Alexander’s life in Cilicia.
• CRITOBOLUS: physician from Cos who served both Phillip and Alexander, he attended Alexander when he was severely wounded in India.
• GLAUCIAS: Greek physician assigned to Hephaestion, he was executed by Alexander after Hephaestion’s death.
• PEUCETAS: native of Mieza who saved Alexander’s life in India.
• ABREAS: corporal of Alexander’s infantry killed in India.
• ATROPATES: satrap of Media who presented Alexander with the gift of 100 armed Amazons.
• ARIARATES: Persian warlord in charge of Capaddocia. Killed and ultimately impaled by Perdiccas.
• DIOXIPPUS: famous Athenian boxer that defeated a Macedonian named Corragus in a match. Dioxippus was wronged by the courtiers of Alexander, he committed suicide.
• HARPALUS: royal treasurer of Alexander, a womanizer. He drew freely from Alexander’s money, Alexander forgave him once. When Harpalus got caught stealing again he fled to Athens betraying Alexander. Harpalus was eventually killed in Crete, his killer was a Spartan mercenary named Thibron.
• PYTHONICE: attractive Athenian courtesan, mistress of Harpalus in Babylon. After her death Harpalus built her a temple, he honored her as Pythonice Aphrodite.
• GLYCERA (sugar): Harpalus’ second wife.
• PHILIPPOS: brother of Harpalus, appointed as satrap in India.
• KALAS: related to Harpalus (cousin?), appointed as satrap in the Hellespontine/Phrygia.
• SANBALLAT III: ruler of Samaria when Alexander was conquering Tyre; Alexander confirmed him in office.
• ANDROMACHUS: Macedonian military commander of the garrison established in Samaria. Samarian insurgents burned him alive in 331 B.C.E. after the death of Sanballat III.
• PSAMMON: Egyptian philosopher who pleased Alexander.
• DOLOASPIS & PETISIS: governors of lower and upper Egypt appointed by Alexander.
• DEMOSTHENES: an Athenian public speaker, he was an anti-Alexander. Demosthenes ended up taking his own life.
• SPITAMENES: Sogdian baron who plagued Alexander with three years of guerrilla war.
• ABDALONYMUS: gardener of royal blood appointed as king of Sidon (by Hephaestion).
• LEOCHARES: Athenian sculptor commissioned both by Phillip and Alexander.
• LYSIPPUS: Alexander’s official sculptor.
• APELLES OF COS: portrait painter of Alexander.
• THEOPHILUS: the man who made the polished steel helmet of Alexander.
• DINOCRATES OF RHODES: the architect who laid out Alexandria.
• DIONYSIUS: the intruder who sat on Alexander’s throne in Babylon (the horrible omen) in 323 B.C.E. He was executed.
• NICOMACHUS: father of the famous Greek philosopher Aristotle. He was a physician to Amyntas, Phillip II’s father.
• HERMIAS: potentate of Atarneus (Greek city in Western Anatolia). He was an ally of Phillip II and a patron of philosophy (related to Aristotle). Hermias was tortured to death by the Persians.
• BISTANES: son of Artaxerxes II.
• BAGISTANES: Babylonian noble who deserted Darius, he told Alexander that Bessus had deposed Darius.
• PYTHIAS: wife of the Greek philosopher Aristotle. Pythias was Hermias’ niece, pretty much his adopted daughter. She gave birth to a girl named Pythias.
• HERPYLLIS: Aristotle’s wife, a former slave (freed by Aristotle). She gave birth to a son that was named Nicomachus like Aristotle’s father.
• NICANOR: a loyal friend of Aristotle.
• ARISTOTLE OF STAGIRA: Greek philosopher (384-322) who served Phillip II and who tutored young Alexander. Aristotle tutored young Alexander from 342 to 336 B.C.E. and he worked as Alexander’s personal adviser until 333 B.C.E.
(here we have a sculpture of the majestic Greek philosopher Aristotle of Stagira, Aristotle served both Phillip II and Alexander. It is interesting that Aristotle was to Phillip and to Alexander the same thing that “Shmuel HaNevi” was to Saul and to David. Obviously Aristotle is not the prophet Samuel and Samuel is not Aristotle but there is a parallel here)
• AEGAE: original capital of the Macedonian kingdom, located in Pieria. Aegae is Vergina today.
(one of the books of the Bible is named after an Israelite prophet named Haggai, it is believed that Haggai lived in the times of Darius I. The name Haggai,…doesn’t it sound like Aigai? Haggai = Aegae)
• ANCHISES: Anchises was a sheepbreder on Mount “Ida” (Ida = Judah). He was the son of Capys (son of Assacarus), king of Dardania and of Themiste, daughter of Ilus (king of Troy). Anchises had an affair with the goddess Aphrodite and she bore him “Aeneas”, progenitor of the Roman peoples (Aeneas supported king Priam of Troy). It is said that Anchises was buried in Scicily.
• PELLA: new capital of the Macedonian kingdom founded by Archelaus (413-399), Phillip’s imperial capital. Pella is located in Bottiaea.
• EYNALIUS: fiery-eyed war god of the Macedonians.
• CYRUS II THE GREAT: founder of the Achaemenid empire. His mother was a Median, his father was a Persian. He died fighting the Massagetae in the Caspian region.
• ANTIOCHUS IV EPIPHANES: he was a king of Seulecid Syria, son of Antiochus Mega (Antiochus III). Antiochus Epimanes was born in 215 B.C., He died in Persia in 164 B.C. He ruled from 175 till 164 B.C.
• TITUS VESPASIANUS: he was the son of the Roman emperor Vespasian. Titus became emperor of Rome in 79 A.D. He was born on December 30th,39 A.D. in Rome. He died on September 13th, 81 A.D. By 70 A.D. He destroyed the temple of the Jews (Jerusalem) in 70 A.D.
• MARCUS ULPIUS TRAIANUS: first provincial Emperor of Rome, born in Baetica/Spain on September 15th 53 B.C (a relative of Hadrian). Became Emperor on January 27th, 98 B.C. Caesar Nerva Traianus Germanicus ruled from 98 B.C. to 117 B.C. He died in Selinus/Cilicia on August 7th (or 8th) 117 B.C., he was 64 years old.
• NABUCHADNEZZAR II: alleged conqueror of Jerusalem and contemporary of Pharaoh Necho II. He supossedly led four campaigns against Jerusalem: in 598, 597, 586, and in 582 B.C.E.
• NECTANEBO II: pharaoh of the XXXth dynasty, mythical progenitor of Alexander. Nakhthored was also known as Snedjemibre Setepeninhur (360-343 B.C.E.).
LIST OF MACEDONIAN KINGS (ARGEADAI).
• Perdikkas I.
• Argaios (son of Perdikkas I).
• Phillip I (son of Argaios).
• Aeropos I (son of Phillip I).
• Alketas (son of Aeropos I).
• Amyntas I (son of Alketas).
• Alexander I: (son of Amyntas I) 497-454.
• Perdikkas II: (son of Alexander I) 454-413.
• Archelaos: (son of Perdikkas II) 413-399.
• Orestes: (son of Archelaos) 399-396.
• Aeropos II: 396-393.
• Pausanias: (son of Aeropos II) 393.
• Amyntas II, the little: (son of Archelaos) 393.
• AMYNTAS III: (son of Arrhidaios, son of Alexander I) 392-370.
• Argaios: 390.
• Alexander II: (son of Amyntas III) 370-368.
• Ptolemaios Olorites: (son of Amyntas?) 368-365.
• Perdikkas III: (son of Amyntas III) 365-359.
• PHILLIP II OF MACEDON: (son of Amyntas III) 359-336.
• ALEXANDER III THE GREAT: (son of Phillip II) 336-323.
• Phillip III Arrhidaios: (son of Phillip II) 323-317.
• Alexander IV: (son of Alexander III) 323-310.
YOU MIGHT WANT TO CHECK THIS OUT:
• HOLY BIBLE, New American Bible, Catholic Readers Edition.
• The Histories, by Herodotus of Halicarnassus.
• Troy: film directed by Wolfgang Petersen, 2004.
• National Geographic, History. December 2015/January 2016. The lost city of Troy.
• Alexander: film directed by Oliver Stone, 2004.
• Hebrew is Greek: by Joseph Yahuda.
• Alejandro Magno, el rey errante. Por Ines Martin.
• Phillip II and Alexander the great unify Greece in World History, by Don Nardo.
• Alexander the great (the hunt for a new past), by Paul Cartledge.
• Immortals, a movie from 2011 directed by Tarsem Singh Dhandwar.
• Alexander the great: the invisible enemy (a biography), by John Maxwell O’Brien.
• The rise and fall of Alexandria (birthplace of the modern world), by Justin Pollard and Howard Reid.
• Yugoslavia’s ethnic nightmare, edited by Jasminka Udovicki and James Ridgeway.
• In the footsteps of Alexander the great, by Michael Wood.
• Wrath of the Titans, a movie from 2012 directed by Jonathan Liebesman.
• Alexander’s tomb [the two thousand year obsession to find the lost conqueror], Nicholas J. Saunders.
• The first clash (the miraculous Greek victory at Marathon and its impact on Western Civilization), by Jim Lacey.
• Alexander the great [conqueror of the ancient world], by Tom McGowen.
• The tribes of Israel: the lost and the dispersed. By Rabbi Eliyahu Avichail.
• Ghost on the throne [the death of Alexander the great and the war for crown and empire], by James Romm.
• In the shadow of Olympus (the emergence of Macedon), by Eugene N. Borza.
• The death of Alexander the great (what-or who- really killed the young conqueror of the known world?), by Paul Doherty.
• Alexander the great failure (the collapse of the Macedonian empire), by John D. Grainger.
• The Spartans (the world of the warrior-heroes of ancient Greece), by Paul Cartledge.
• The great German nation: origins and destiny, by Craig M. White.
• Kosovo, by Julie A. Mertus.
• The generalship of Alexander the Great, by J.F.C.Fuller.
• Jerusalem under the high priests, by Edwin Bevan.
• The 300 Spartans, a film from 1962 directed by Rudolph Mate.
• The oracle (the lost secrets and hidden message of ancient Delphi), by William J. Broad.
• 300, 2006 film directed by Zack Snider.
• The Shia revival (how conflicts within Islam will shape the future), by Vali Nasr.
• Eumenes of Cardia: a Greek among Macedonians, by Edward M. Anson.
• Into the land of bones (Alexander the great in Afghanistan), by Frank L. Holt.
• 300: Rise of an empire, 2014 film directed by Noam Murro.
• Moises, faraon de Egipto. By Ahmed Osman.
• Conquest and empire (the reign of Alexander the great), by A. B. Bosworth.
• Argo (2012), directed by Ben Affleck.
• Who are the Macedonians? by Hugh Poulton.
• Revolt in Judea, by Alfred H. Tamarin.
• Phillip of Macedon, by George Cawkwell.
• Caesar’s messiah, by Joseph Atwill.
• Kosovo (what everyone needs to know), by Tim Judah.
• Alejandro Magno. Protagonistas de la civilizacion, Editorial Debate/Itaca.
• In search of Zarathustra (across Iran and central Asia to find the world’s first prophet), by Paul Kriwaczek.
• A murder in Macedon, by Anna Apostolou.
• A history of the Israeli army (1870-1974), by Zeev Ichiff.
• Alejandro Magno (el destino de un mito), por Claude Mosse.
• Chronicle of a Pharaoh (the intimate life of Amenhotep III), by Joann Fletcher.
• The genius of Alexander the great, by N.G.L. Hammond.
• The legend of Hercules, a film from 2014 directed by Renny Harlin.
• A history of Macedonia, by R. Malcolm Errington.
• Lebanon, 2009 film directed by Samuel Maoz.
• Old Testament parallels (laws and stories from the ancient near east), by Victor H. Matthews and Don C. Benjamin.
• Under the bombs, 2007 film directed by Philippe Aractingi.
• Paradise now, 2005 directed by Hany-Abu Assad.
• Thermopylae (the battle that changed the world), by Paul Cartledge.
• The thirteenth tribe, by Arthur Koestler.
• National Geographic. Vol. 197, No. 3. March 2000. Alexander the conqueror, by Caroline Alexander.
• Lebanon (death of a nation), by Sandra Mackey.
• 34 days (Israel, Hezbollah, and the war in Lebanon), by Amos Harel and Avi Issacharoff.
• A privilege to die (inside Hezbollah’s legions and their endless war against Israel), by Thanassis Cambanis.
• 101 myths of the Bible: how ancient scribes invented Biblical history. By Gary Greenberg.
• Lone Survivor, a film from 2013 directed by Peter Berg.
(Mr Nizin R. Lopez, 2015)